Most Common Questions asked
by Non-Muslims



Is it not true that the Qur’an is the handiwork of Muhammad and not the word

of God?


For a detailed answer refer to the lecture notes of ‘Is the Qur’an

God’s Word?’ by Dr Zakir Naik.







There were many versions of the Qur’an, all of which were burnt by Uthmaan

(ra) except for one. Therefore is it not true that the present Qur’an is the one

compiled by Uthmaan (ra) and not the original revelation of God?




It is completely wrong to say that there were several versions of the Qur’an,

and Uthmaan (ra) burnt all the different versions after authenticating and

compiling one Qur’an. There was only one Qur’an that was authenticated and

compiled under the personal supervision of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).


1. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself supervised and

authenticated the written texts of the Qur’an


Whenever the Prophet (pbuh) received a revelation, he would first memorize it

himself and later declare the revelation and instruct his Companions who

would also memorize it. The Prophet (pbuh) would immediately ask the

scribes to write down the revelation he had received, and he would reconfirm

and recheck it himself. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was an Ummi i.e. one who

could not read and write. Therefore, after receiving each revelation, he would

repeat it to his Companions. They would write down the revelation, and he

would recheck by asking them to read what they had written. If there was any

mistake, the Prophet (pbuh) would immediately point it out and have it

corrected and rechecked. Similarly, he would even recheck and authenticate

the portions of the Qur’an memorized by the Companions. In this way, the

complete Qur’an was written down under the personal supervision of the

Prophet (pbuh).


2. Order and sequence of the Qur’an was divinely inspired


The complete Qur’an was revealed over a period of 22½ years portion by

portion, as and when it was required. The Qur’an was not compiled by the

Prophet (pbuh) in the chronological order of revelation. The order and

sequence of the Qur’an too was Divinely inspired and was instructed to the

Prophet (pbuh) by Allah (swt) through Archangel Jibraeel. Whenever a

revelation was conveyed to his companions, the Prophet (pbuh) would also

mention in which surah (Chapter) and after which aayah (Verse) this new

revelation should fit.

Every Ramadhaan all the portions of the Qur’an that had been revealed,

including the order of the Verses, were revised and reconfirmed by the

Prophet (pbuh) with Archangel Jibraeel. During the last Ramadhaan, before

the demise of the Prophet (pbuh), the Qur’an was rechecked and reconfirmed


It is therefore clearly evident that the Qur’an was compiled and authenticated

by the Prophet (pbuh) himself during his lifetime, both in the written form as

well as in the memory of several of his Companions.


3. Qur’an copied on one common material


The complete Qur’an, along with the correct sequence of the Verses, was

present during the time of the Prophet (pbuh). The Verses however, were

written on separate pieces, scrapes of leather, thin flat stones, leaflets, palm

branches, shoulder blades of camels, etc. After the demise of the Prophet

(pbuh), Abu Bakr (ra), the first caliph of Islam ordered that the Qur’an be

copied from the various different materials on to a common material and

place, which was in the shape of sheets. These were tied with strings so that

nothing of the compilation was lost.


4. Uthmaan (ra) made copies of the Qur’an from the original



During the period of Uthmaan (ra), the third Caliph of Islam, disputes arose

about the correct manner of reciting the Qur’an, due to different dialects.

Since Islam had spread into different regions, the pronunciation of the Qur’an

differed in different regions. Hence the need arose to circulate the correct

text, pronunciation and dialect of the Qur’an in different parts of the world.

Many Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) used to write down the revelation of

the Qur’an on their own whenever they heard it from the lips of the Prophet

(pbuh). However what they wrote was not personally verified by the Prophet

(pbuh) and thus could contain mistakes. All the Verses revealed to the Prophet

(pbuh) may not have been heard personally by all the Companions. There

were high possibilities of different portions of the Qur’an being missed by

different Companions.


Uthmaan (ra) borrowed the original manuscript of the Qur’an, which was

authorized by the beloved Prophet (pbuh), from Hafsah (may Allah be pleased

with her), the Prophet’s wife. Uthmaan (ra) ordered the four Companions who

were among the scribes who wrote the Qur’an when the Prophet (pbuh)

dictated it, led by Zaid bin Thabit (ra) to rewrite the script in several perfect

copies. These were sent by Uthmaan (ra) to the main centres of Muslims.

Uthmaan (ra) only appealed to the people to destroy all those copies which

did not match the original manuscript of the Qur’an in order to preserve the

original text of the Qur’an. Two such copies of the copied text of the original

Qur’an authenticated by the Prophet (pbuh) are yet present to this day, one at

the museum in Tashkent in erstwhile Soviet Union and the other at the

Topkapi Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.


5. Diacritical marks were added for non-Arabs


The original manuscript of the Qur’an does not have the signs indicating the

vowels in Arabic script. These vowels are known as tashkil, zabar, zair, paish

in Urdu and as fatah, dhamma and kasra in Arabic. The Arabs did not require

the vowel signs and diacritical marks for correct pronunciation of the Qur’an

since it was their mother tongue. For Muslims of non-Arab origin, however, it

was difficult to recite the Qur’an correctly without the vowels. These marks

were introduced into the Quranic script during the time of the fifth ‘Umayyad’

Caliph, Abdul Malik Al-Marwaan (66-86 Hijri / 685-705 CE) and during the

governorship of Al-Hajjaaj in Iraq.


Some people argue that the present copy of the Qur’an that we have along

with the vowels and the diacritical marks is not the same original Qur’an that

was present at the Prophet’s time. But they fail to realize that the word

‘Qur’an’ means a recitation. Therefore, the preservation of the recitation of the

Qur’an is important, irrespective of whether the script is different or whether it

contains vowels. If the pronunciation and the Arabic are the same, naturally,

the meaning remains the same too.


6. Allah Himself has promised to guard the Qur’an


Allah has promised in the Qur’an :

“We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly

Guard it (from corruption).”

[Al-Qur’an 15:9]





According to Darwin’s theory of Evolution, man has evolved from apes.

Doesn’t the Qur’an conflict with this theory?



1. There is no book which says, ‘Fact of Evolution’


I have not come across any book which says, ‘Fact of Evolution’. All the books

say, ‘Theory of Evolution’. If you read the book by Charles Darwin, ‘The Origin

of Species’ - It says that, Charles Darwin went on an island by the name of

‘Galapagos’ on a ship named as ‘HMS Beagle’ and there he found birds

pecking at niches. Depending upon the Ecological niches they pecked, their

beaks kept on becoming long and short. This observation was made by him in

14 different species of birds. After making these observations Charles Darwin

writes in his book, ‘The Origin of Species’, Chapter No. 6: ‘Difficulties on the

Theory’ -

“Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine

gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms?”

Charles Darwin himself agreed that there were missing links. If one specie had

evolved from the other specie then there ought to be ‘Transitional Forms’ like

half-fish / half-reptiles etc.

In school we used to joke and say, “If you were present at Darwin’s time this

theory would have been proven to be right!” Trying to insinuate that he looks

like an Ape!


2. An enemy of my enemy is my friend


The reason that this theory in most parts of the world is taught as good as

fact, is because in the past the Church was against Science whenever it went

against the Bible. So when Charles Darwin came up with a theory which goes

against the Bible, they didn’t want any sufficient proof - An Enemy of my

Enemy is my Friend. Most of the Scientists supported the theory, because it

went against the Bible, not because it was true. We know the incidence

when Galileo was kept under house arrest for 8 years until he died, because

he said certain statements in the field of Astronomy, which went against the

Bible. Pope John Paul II apologized for this in the end of 20th century more

than 350 years after the Roman Catholic Church condemned Galileo. “After

350 years, Vatican Says Galileo Was Right” read the Newspaper Headline of

New York Times, 31st October, 1992.


3. Stages of ‘Homonoids’


Science tells us today that there were four ‘Homonoids’ - first is ‘Lucy’ then

next came the ‘Homosapians’, who died about five hundred thousand years

ago. Then came the ‘Neanderthal Man’, who died hundred to forty thousand

years ago. Then came the fourth stage, the ‘Cro-magnon’. ‘There is no link at

all between these stages’ - According to P. P. Grasse (in 1971) who held the

Chair of Evolutionary Studies in Paris, in Sorbonne University. He also said, “It

is absurd, we cannot say who were our ancestors based on fossils.”


4. How did the First Cell come about?


Darwin never mentioned the origin of life in his book. In his time, it was

believed that bacteria came about from inanimate matter. Spontaneous

generation was widely embraced since medieval times because they had a

primitive understanding of science: that maggots emerged from meat, mice

from wheat, and insects from leftover food.

Five years after the publication of Darwin’s book, Louis Pasteur’s

groundbreaking findings shattered this very cornerstone of evolution. He

designed an experiment to test whether sterile nutrient broth could

spontaneously generate microbial life, and this experiment refuted the notion

of spontaneous generation. Evolutionists refused to accept his findings for a

long time. Pasteur said, ‘Never will the doctrine of spontaneous

generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple


How, then, did the ‘first cell’ originate? Scientific progress has revealed how

complex the structure of a cell is, and that it could not have evolved

coincidentally. The theory of evolution is confronted with this insurmountable

obstacle at the first step, exposing the collapse of Darwinism at its very roots.

5. Mutation as an Evolutionary Mechanism?

Mutations are replacements in the DNA molecule, owing to external factors

like radiation or chemical action. Evolutionists seeking refuge in mutation

make it appear like a magic wand transforming organisms into superior

beings. For decades, evolutionists have sweated over the creation of a

single useful mutation, but without success.


The only instance evolutionary biologists present for beneficial mutation is

sickle-cell anemia, which greatly reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the

blood; so people with sickle-cell anemia suffer increasing respiratory problems.

Sickle cell disease gives the carrier partial immunity against malaria.

Darwinists claim that this protection by those with this illness is a 'gift of

evolution'. Using the same logic, one could say that since people born with

genetic leg paralysis are unable to walk, hence saved from traffic accidents,

paralysis is a 'useful genetic feature'. This is absurd and unfounded.

The direct effects of mutation are obviously disastrous: the death and

disability endured by the people of Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl;

ailments like Down’s syndrome, mongolism, dwarfism and cancer; damage,

infirmities, and freaks of nature. Needless to say, a process that leaves

organisms crippled and impaired cannot be an ‘evolutionary mechanism’.

Pierre-Paul Grassé, former president for the French Academy of Sciences

compared mutations to ‘making mistakes in the letters when copying

written text.’ Can letter mistakes give rise to useful information, instead of

simply damaging the information that already exists? Grassé adds, 'No

matter how numerous they may be, mutations do not produce any

kind of evolution.'


6. The Pleiotropic Effect


The most substantial proof that mutations lead only to damage and disarray is

the process of genetic coding: nearly all of the genes in a fully developed

organism control more than one genetic feature, for example, height and eye

color. This means that any coincidental change in any gene will not be

restricted to one organ, but it will exhibit more of its destructive impact

elsewhere too. Even if one of these impacts does miraculously turn out to be

beneficial, the effects of the other damage will outweigh it by far. Thus,

mutation leading to evolution is an established impossibility.


7. Natural selection doesn’t change Species


One of the key components of the evolution theory is natural selection, or the

‘survival of the fittest’. For example, in a herd of deer under threat from

predators, the ones that can run the fastest will survive. Consequently, the

surviving deer will only comprise the fast runners. We do not deny the

presence of natural selection. However, no matter how long this

process goes on for, it will never transform the deer into another


The senior paleontologist Collin Patterson states, 'No one has ever

produced a species by the mechanism of natural selection. No one

has ever gotten near it, and most of the current argument in neo-

Darwinism is about this question.'


8. Inadequacy of the Fossil record


One of the clearest evidences pointing against the evolution theory is the plain

truth presented in the fossil record. According to the theory, every living

species sprung from its predecessor, over millions of years; so the existence of

intermediary species like half-fish/half-reptiles is critical. Why then, is there no

trace whatsoever of these imaginary creatures in the fossil record?

Evolutionists world over have toiled hard to uncover these 'transitional forms',

only to have their hopes shattered: all the fossils unearthed show, that

life appeared all at once and fully formed.


But the drowning man clutches at straws. Some 140 years ago, Darwin argued

that the fossil record was inadequate, and further research would reveal the

required fossils. Is this argument valid today? The sheer wealth of the fossil

record will surely answer this question. Billions of fossils have been excavated

all over the planet, bearing striking similarity to today's species, and not a

single transitory form has been found, contrary to Darwin's assumptions, and

the assumptions of his followers.

The scientific discoveries of the past two decades have sent shockwaves

among the campaigners of Darwinism. One of them, Jerry Coyne, remarks,

'My own reaction resembles the dismay attending my discovery, at

the age of six, that it was my father and not Santa who brought the

presents on Christmas Eve.'


9. Probability of a Coincidental Origin


In a desperate attempt to override the very powerful argument that life could

never arise by chance, Richard Dawkins said, “If the odds of life originating

spontaneously on a planet were a billion to one against …” A billion to one is

only 1 in 109. But the probability of the formation of only one protein

molecule is "1 in 10300The probability of this "1" actually occurring is

practically nil. In practice, probabilities smaller than 1 over 1050 are thought of

as "zero probability". Even if the whole universe was packed with amino acids

combining frantically for billions of years, it would not produce even one such

protein molecule let alone produce a living cell.


10. More than a Hundred Scientists have spoken against Darwin’s Theory


There is a list of more than a hundred scientists and Noble Prize winners who

have spoken against Darwin’s Theory. Albert Szent-Gyorgi who got the Noble

prize for inventing the Vitamin ‘C’ wrote the book, ‘The Crazy Ape’, against

Darwin’s Theory. Sir Fred Hoyle wrote against Darwin’s Theory. Commenting

on ‘Coincidental Origin’ he said, “The chance that higher life forms might have

emerged in this way (time and chance) is comparable with the chance that ‘a

Tornado sweeping through a junk-yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the

materials therein.’” Sir Frank Salisbury who was an American Plant Physiologist

said, “It is illogical to believe in Darwin’s theory.”


In the field of Molecular Biology, according to Nancy Craig who is an authority

in this field said, “It is unimaginable and the probability of one DNA forming

from an Ape to Human being, is Zero.”


11. Darwin’s Theory – A Media Propaganda


Today Darwin’s Theory is taught in the schools - Why? because Media is in

their hands. Otherwise there is no proof at all. There are certain proofs at

lower level that an Amoeba can change to Paramecia. Qur’an does not say,

‘Amoeba cannot change to Paramecia’. It is not against the Qur’an.


12. Conclusion


Those who believe in the theory of evolution are deluded by the bigoted and

short-sighted notion that a few atoms accidently thrown together into a huge

vat could produce intellectuals like Galileo and Newton, artists such as Da

Vinci and Picasso, as well as antelopes, lemon trees and carnations. Darwinism

is thus, arguably the most potent spell in history. Never before has a dogma

so ensnared people's powers of reason, barred them from thinking rationally,

and compelled them to reject the truth while in plain sight.


13. Modern science, evidently, is one of the staunchest critics of

Darwinist ideology, and the most ardent advocate of monotheism. There

are hundreds of Scientists who speak against that and the Qur’an speaks

against that as well. Qur’an says that the first man was Adam (Peace be upon

him). In sha Allah the scientists may discover it 100 years afterwards, or may

be a 1000 years afterwards but so far it is not conflicting with established


Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Fussilat, Chapter 41, Verse 53,

“Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth),

and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the


[Al-Qur’an 41:53]







Doesn’t Islam promote violence, bloodshed and brutality since the Qur’an says

that Muslims should kill the Kaafirs wherever they find them?




A few selected Verses from the Qur’an are often misquoted to prove that

Islam promotes violence, and exhorts its followers to kill those outside the fold

of Islam.


1. Verse from Surah Al Tawbah


The following Verse from Surah Al Tawbah is very often quoted by the critics

of Islam, to show that Islam promotes violence, bloodshed and brutality:

“Kill the ‘mushrikeen’ (pagans, Kaafirs) wherever you find them.”

[Al-Qur’an 9:5]


2. Context of Verse is during battlefield


Critics of Islam actually quote this Verse out of context. In order to understand

the context, we need to read from Verse 1 of this Surah. It says that there

was a peace treaty between the Muslims and the ‘Mushriks’ (pagans) of

Makkah. This treaty was unilaterally broken and violated by the ‘Mushriks’ of

Makkah. A period of four months was given to the ‘Mushriks’ of Makkah to put

things straight, else there would be declaration of war. Verse 5 of Surah Al

Tawbah says:


 “But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the pagans

wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for

them in every stratagem (of war); But if they repent, and establish regular

prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them: For Allah is

Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

[Al-Qur’an 9:5]

This Verse is quoted during a battle.


3. Example of war between America and Vietnam


We know that America and Vietnam were once at war. Suppose the President

of America or the General of the American Army told the American soldiers

during the war: “Wherever you find the Vietnamese, kill them.” Today if I say

that the American President said, “Wherever you find Vietnamese, kill them”

without giving the context, I will make him sound like a butcher. But if I quote

him in context, that he said it during a war, it will sound very logical, as he

was trying to boost the morale of the American soldiers during the war.


4. Verse 9:5 quoted to boost the morale of Muslims during battle


Similarly in Surah Al Tawbah Chapter 9 Verse 5 the Qur’an, says, “Kill the

Mushriks wherever you find them,” during a battle to boost the morale of the

Muslim soldiers. What the Qur’an is telling Muslim soldiers is, don’t be afraid

during battle; wherever you find the enemy kill him.


5. Arun Shourie jumps from Verse 5 to Verse 7


Arun Shourie is one of the staunchest critics of Islam in India. He quotes the

same Verse, Surah Al Tawbah Chapter 9 Verse 5 in his book ‘The World of

Fatwas’, on Page 572. After quoting Verse 5 he jumps to Verse 7 of Surah Al

Tawbah. Any sensible person will realise that he has skipped Verse 6.


6. Surah Al Tawbah Chapter 9 Verse 6 gives the answer


Surah Al Tawbah Chapter 9 Verse 6 gives the answer to the allegation that

Islam promotes violence, brutality and bloodshed. It says:

“If one amongst the pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he

may hear the word of Allah, and then escort him to where he can be secure

that is because they are men without knowledge.”

[Al-Qur’an 9:6]

The Qur’an not only says that a ‘Mushrik’ seeking asylum during the battle

should be granted refuge, but also that he should be escorted to a place of

security. In the present international scenario, even the most kind, peaceloving

Army General, during a battle, may let the enemy soldiers go free, if

they want peace. But which Army General will ever tell his soldiers, that if the

enemy soldiers want peace during a battle, don’t just let them go free, but

also escort them to a place of security?

This is exactly what Allah (swt) says in the Glorious Qur’an to promote peace

in the world.





Does Islam believe in several Gods because the Qur’an uses the word ‘We’

when God speaks in the Qur’an?




Islam is a strictly monotheistic religion. It believes in and adheres to

uncompromising monotheism. It believes that God is one, and unique in His

attributes. In the Qur’an, God often refers to Himself using the word ‘We’. But

this does not mean that Islam believes in the existence of more than one God.


Two types of plural

In several languages, there are two types of plurals, one is a plural of

numbers to refer to something that is more than one. The other plural is a

plural of respect.

a. In the English language, the Queen of England refers to herself as ‘We’

instead of ‘I’. This is known as the ‘royal plural’.

b. Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of India used to say in Hindi

‘Hum dekhna chahte hain’. ‘Hum’ means ‘We’ which is again a royal plural

in Hindi.

c. Similarly in Arabic, when Allah refers to Himself in the Qur’an, many a

time He uses ‘Nahnu’ meaning ‘We’. It does not indicate plural of

numbers but plural of respect.

‘Tawheed’ or monotheism is one of the pillars of Islam. The existence and

uniqueness of one and only one God is mentioned several times in the Qur’an.

For instance in Surah Al Ikhlaas, it says:

“Say He is Allah the one and only.”

[Al-Qur’an 112:1]






If God is responsible for our destiny then why should we be held responsible

for the evil acts and sins we commit?




As far as the question on ‘Qadr’ i.e. Destiny is concerned, it’s a common

question asked by Muslims as well as non-Muslims and it’s difficult to



1. Belief in ‘Qadr’ is an article of Faith


It is mentioned in Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, The Book of Faith, Hadith No. 93:

When Jibraeel asked Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) about Faith, the Prophet

(pbuh) said, “Faith is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His

Messengers, The Day of Judgement and Al Qadr (Destiny).”

Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an, in Surah Al Qamar, Chapter 54, Verse 49

“Indeed, all things We created with predestination.”

[Al Qur’an 54:49]

And the Prophet (pbuh) said in a Hadith of Sahih Muslim, Vol. 7, The Book of

Al Qadr, Hadith No. 6748:

“Allaah decided the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created

the heavens and the earth.”

Which means that Allah (swt) already had the knowledge of the future,

knowledge of the Unseen i.e. ‘Ilm Al Ghayb’, fifty thousand years before the

creation of the Heavens and the Earth.


2. Allah is not to be blamed for the wrong actions we do


I’d like to give an example, for people to know that Allah (swt) has ‘Ilm Al

Ghayb’ - knowledge of the Unseen, He has the knowledge of the future.

In a class room there is a teacher, who teaches the student. After one year

has passed before the examinations, the teacher predicts that child ‘A’ will

come first class first. Child ‘B’ will get a second class. Child ‘C’ will fail. And

once the examination takes place and when the results are out. Student ‘A’

gets a first class first. Student ‘B’ gets a second class. Student ‘C’ fails. Now

the question I would like to ask is that just because the teacher predicted that

the student ‘C’ would fail can the student ‘C’ blame the teacher saying that

because the teacher predicted that I will fail, I have failed. But natural the

answer is No. The teacher predicted the student ‘A’ will get a first class first

because the teacher knew that the student was studious and was intelligent.

Student ‘B’ was an average student. Student ‘C’ used to play hooky, used to

bunk school, never used to study, never used to do the homework. So based

on that the teacher predicted that student ‘C’ would fail. But student ‘C’ cannot

blame the teacher; because the teacher predicted I would fail therefore I’ve

failed. The student himself is responsible.


3. It is not what Allah has written we do but what we will do Allah has

already written


Similarly Allah (swt) has ‘Ilm Al Ghayb’ of what choices we will make or what

actions we will do. For example, when a human being comes at a crossroad,

there are five roads from which he can choose, Road one, two, three, four,

five. He has the free will to choose any. He chooses Road three and that’s

already mentioned in the Destiny that he will choose road three. It is not

because Allah has mentioned he will choose Road three, that he has chosen

road three, it is because he will be choosing road three Allah (swt) writes it in

advance because He has ‘Ilm Al Ghayb’. Like how the teacher predicts in

advance, so Allah knows this person has a choice to choose any of the roads

from the five roads available but he chooses Road three. So Allah knows in

advance he will be choosing Road three therefore He mentions in the Qadr, in

the Destiny that he’ll be choosing Road three.

Now once he goes to road three after some time he comes on another

crossroad, one, two, three, he chooses Road three. Now because he will be

choosing Road three Allah knows in advance, he has ‘Ilm Al Ghayb’, so He has

mentioned that after some time he’ll come at another crossroad and this

particular person will choose again Road three. It is not because Allah has

mentioned in Qadr that he’s choosing Road three. It is because he has chosen

Road three Allah has written in advance because He has ‘Ilm Al Ghayb’.


4. Allah has given us the freewill to choose between good and evil.


Same way a person if he wants to earn his livelihood, he has both choices,

either he can strive hard, work hard and do a honest job and earn that money

or he can rob or he can steal, the choice is his.

Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an in Surah Al Balad, Chapter 90 Verse 10

“And have shown him the two ways (the good and the evil)”

[Al Qur’an 90:10]

If suppose a person prefers to steal, now Allah knows in advance that at the

age of 25 years he has an option of working hard, earn a honest living or

stealing. But this person steals. So Allah knows in advance he will be stealing

therefore Allah has written in his Qadr he’ll steal. It is not because Allah has

written he has stolen. It is because he will be stealing Allah has written in


During the Caliphate of the Second Caliph of Islam Umar (ra), a thief was

brought to the court of law to carry out the Hadd punishment on him for

stealing. The thief argued with Umar (ra) saying that, “O Umar (ra) if Allah

had already written in my destiny that I would steal, why should I be blamed

and receive the punishment for it. In response Umar (ra) said, “Yes, it was

written in your destiny that you would steal and also be convicted and

punished for it.”

So similarly if a person commits murder, it’s his choice. He can either commit

a murder or not commit it, the choice is his. If he commits a murder, who is to

be blamed? He is to be blamed. So here we realize that Allah has ‘Ilm Al

Ghayb’ and He has written our destiny even before we were born.


5. Dua’ can change your Destiny


The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Nothing can change the Qadr except Dua’.”

(Silsilah Al Saheehah, Hadith No. 145)

If a student appears for an examination and does not perform well, he knows

that he is going to fail. He comes home and prays to Allah (swt) that he

should pass. Allah accepts his prayer and passes him.

Initially in the Qadr it was written that he would not perform well in the

examination and that he would fail, but Allah (swt) also knew in advance that

he would later pray and ask Allah for help. It was also mentioned in the Qadr

that Allah (swt) would accept his prayer and pass him in the examination.





Muslims believe in the theory of abrogation, i.e. they believe that certain

earlier Verses of the Qur’an were abrogated by Verses revealed later. Does

this imply that God made a mistake and later on corrected it? Don’t these two

Verses of the Qur’an contradict each other?



1. Two different interpretations


The Glorious Qur’an says in the following Verse:

“Whatever of our revelations do we abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but we

substitute something better or similar: knowest thou not that Allah hath power

over all things?”

[Al-Qur’an 2:106]

A reference to this is also made in Chapter 16 Verse 101 of Surah Al Nahl. The

Arabic word mentioned is ‘Aayaat’ which means ‘Signs’ and which can also

mean ‘revelation’. This Verse of the Qur’an can be interpreted in two different



a. The revelations that are abrogated are those revelations that were

revealed before the Qur’an, for example the Torah, the Zaboor and the


Here Allah (swt) says that He does not cause the previous revelations to

be forgotten but He substitutes them with something better or similar,

indicating that the Torah, the Zaboor and the Injeel were substituted by

the Qur’an.


b. If we consider that the Arabic word ‘Aayaat’ in the above Verse refers to

the Verses of the Qur’an, and not previous revelations, then it indicates

that none of the Verses of the Qur’an are abrogated by Allah but

substituted with something better or similar. This means that certain

Verses of the Qur’an that were revealed earlier were substituted by

Verses that were revealed later. I agree with both the interpretations.

Many Muslims and non-Muslims misunderstand the second interpretation

to mean that some of the earlier Verses of the Qur’an were abrogated

and no longer hold true for us today, as they have been replaced by the

later Verses of the Qur’an i.e. ‘Naasikh’ or the abrogating Verses. This

group of people even wrongly believes that both these Verses the

‘Mansookh’ and the ‘Naasikh’ contradict each other.

Let us analyze a few such examples.


2. Produce a Recital like the Qur’an / 10 Surahs / 1 Surah:


Some pagan Arabs alleged that the Qur’an was forged by Prophet Muhammad


Allah (swt) challenged these Arabs in the following Verse of Surah Al-Israa:

“Say: if the whole of Mankind and Jinns were together to produce the like of

this Qur’an they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up

each other with help and support.”

[Al-Qur’an 17:88]

Later the challenge was made easy in the following Verse of Surah Hood:


“Or they may say, ‘He forged it.’ Say, ‘Bring ye then ten Surahs forged, like

unto it, and call (to your aid) whomsover ye can, other than Allah, if ye speak

the truth!’.”

[Al-Qur’an 11:13]

It was made easier in the following Verse of Surah Yunus:

“Or do they say, ‘He forged it’? Say: ‘Bring then a Surah like unto it, and call

(to your aid) anyone you can, besides Allah, if it be that ye speak the truth!’ ”

[Al-Qur’an 10:38]

Finally in Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah (swt) further eased the challenge:

“And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our

servant, then produce a Surah like thereunto; and call your witnesses or

helpers (if there are any) besides Allah if your (doubts) are true.


But if ye cannot, and of a surety ye cannot, then fear the Fire whose fuel is

Men and Stones – which is prepared for those who reject faith.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:23-24]

Thus Allah (swt) made the challenges progressively easier. The Verses of the

Qur’an first challenged the pagans to produce a book like the Qur’an, then

challenged them to produce ten Surahs (Chapters) like those in the Qur’an,

then one Surah and finally it challenges them to produce one Surah somewhat

similar (mim mislihi) to the Qur’anic Surahs. This does not mean that the later

Verses that were revealed i.e. of Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2 Verses 23 and

24 contradict the earlier three Verses. Contradiction implies mentioning two

things that cannot be possible simultaneously, or cannot take place



The earlier Verses of the Qur’an i.e. the abrogated Verses are still the word of

God and the information contained in it, is yet true to this day. For instance,

the challenge to produce a recital like the Qur’an stands to this day. Similarly

the challenge to produce ten Surahs and one Surah exactly like the Qur’an

also holds true and the last challenge of producing one surah somewhat

similar to the Qur’an does not contradict the earlier challenges, but this is the

easiest of all the challenges posed by the Qur’an. If the last challenge cannot

be fulfilled, the question of anyone fulfilling the other three more difficult

challenges does not arise.


Suppose I say about a person that he is so dumb, that he would not be able

to pass the 10th standard in school. Later I say that he would not be able to

pass the 5th standard, and further say that he would not be able to pass even

the 1st standard. Finally I say that he is so dull that he would not even be able

to pass K.G. i.e. kindergarten. One has to pass kindergarten before one can be

admitted to school. My four statements do not contradict each other, but my

last statement or challenge i.e. the person would not be able to pass the

kindergarten is sufficient to indicate the intelligence of that person. If a person

cannot even pass kindergarten, the question of him passing the first standard

or 5th or 10th, does not arise.


3. Gradual prohibition of intoxicants


Another example of such Verses is related to the gradual prohibition of

intoxicants. The first revelation of the Qur’an to deal with intoxicants was the

following Verse from Surah Al Baqarah:

“They ask thee concerning wine and gambling say: ‘in them is great sin,

and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit’…”

[Al-Qur’an 2:219]

The next Verse to be revealed regarding intoxicants is the following Verse

from Surah Al Nisaa’:

“O ye who believe approach not prayer with a mind befogged, until ye can

understand all that ye say…”

[Al-Qur’an 4:43]

The last Verse to be revealed regarding intoxicants was the following Verse

from Surah Al-Maa’idah:

“O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (Dedication of) stones, and

(divination by) arrows, are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork; eschew such

(abomination), that ye may prosper.”

[Al-Qur’an 5:90]

The Qur’an was revealed over a period of 23 years. Many reforms that were

brought about in the society were gradual so that the people could adapt and

follow it. It wouldn’t have been easy, had it been instructed all at once.

The prohibition of intoxicants was revealed in three stages. The first revelation

only mentioned that in the intoxicants there is great sin and some profit but

the sin is greater than the profit. The next revelation prohibited praying in an

intoxicated state, indicating that one should not consume intoxicants during

the day, since a Muslim has to pray five times a day. This Verse does not state

that when one is not praying at night one is allowed to consume intoxicants. It

means one may have or one may not have. The Qur’an does not comment on

it. If this Verse had mentioned that one is allowed to have intoxicants while

not praying then there would have been a contradiction. Allah (swt) chose

words appropriately. Finally the total prohibition of intoxicants at all times was

revealed in Verse 90 of Surah Al Maa’idah (Chapter 5).

This clearly indicates that the three Verses do not contradict each other. Had

they been contradicting, it would not have been possible to follow all the three

Verses simultaneously. Since a Muslim is expected to follow each and every

Verse of the Qur’an, only by following the last Verse i.e. of Surah Al Maa’idah

(5:90), he simultaneously agrees and follows the previous two Verses.

Suppose I say that I do not live in Los Angeles. Later I say that I do not live in

California. Finally I say, I do not live in the United States of America. This does

not imply that these three statements contradict each other. Each statement

gives more information than the previous statement. The third statement

includes the information contained in the first two statements. Thus, only by

saying that I do not live in the United States of America, it is obvious, that I

also do not live in California or Los Angeles. Similarly since consuming alcohol

is totally prohibited, it is obvious that praying in an intoxicated state is also

prohibited and the information that in intoxicants is “great sin and some profit

for men; but the sin is greater than profit” also holds true.

Thus, the Theory of Abrogation doesn’t mean that God made a mistake and

later corrected it but God revealed the Prohibition in stages so that it would be

easier for the human beings to implement it. Even the challenges for the

human beings were revealed in stages to make the challenges easier.

Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an in Surah Taa Haa, Chapter 20, Verse 52

“…My Lord never errs, nor forgets.”

[Al Qur’an 20:52]







Why do certain Surahs in the Qur’an begin with ‘Alif Laam Meem’, ‘Haa Meem’,

‘Yaa Seen’ and what is the significance of such terms or phrases?




1. Abbreviated Letters

Alif Laam Meem, Yaa Seen, Haa Meem, etc. are known as Al-Muqatt’aat i.e.

the abbreviated letters. There are 29 letters in the Arabic Alphabet (if hamza

and alif are considered as two letters) and there are 29 Surahs i.e. Chapters in

the Glorious Qur’an that have the abbreviated letters prefixed to them. These

abbreviated letters sometimes occur alone, sometimes in a combination of two

letters and sometimes in a combination of three, four or five letters.

a. Three Surahs are prefixed with only one letter:

(i) Surah Saad Chapter 38 with Saad

(ii) Surah Qaaf Chapter 50 with Qaaf

(iii) Surah Noon or Al Qalam Chapter 68 with Noon

b. The combination of two letters occurs in ten Surahs:

Three of them occur only once each:

(i) Surah Taa Haa Chapter 20 has Taa Haa

(ii) Surah Al Naml Chapter 27 has Taa Seen

(iii) Surah Yaa Seen Chapter 36 has Yaa Seen

Haa Meem occurs in seven consecutive Surahs from Surah 40 to Surah 46:

(i) Surah Ghaafir or Al-Mu’min Chapter 40

(ii) Surah Fussilat or Haa Meem Chapter 41

(iii) Surah Al Shooraa Chapter 42

(iv) Surah Al Zukhruf Chapter 43

(v) Surah Al Dukhaan Chapter 44

 (vi) Surah Al Jaathiyah Chapter 45

(vii) Surah Al Ahqaaf Chapter 46

c. There are three combinations of three letters each occurring in 13 Surahs.

Alif Laam Meem occurs in six Surahs

(i) Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2

(ii) Surah Aali ‘Imran Chapter 3

(iii) Surah Al ‘Ankaboot Chapter 29

(iv) Surah Al Room Chapter 30

(v) Surah Luqmaan Chapter 31

(vi) Surah Al Sajdah Chapter 32

Alif Laam Raa occurs in five Surahs from Surah 10 to Surah 15 except Surah 13:

(i) Surah Yoonus Chapter 10

(ii) Surah Hood Chapter 11

(iii) Surah Yoosuf Chapter 12

(iv) Surah Ibraaheem Chapter 14

(v) Surah Al Hijr Chapter 15

Taa Seen Meem occurs in two Surahs:

(i) Surah Al-Shu’araa Chapter 26

(ii) Surah Al-Qasas Chapter 28

d. Combination of four letters occurs twice:

(i) Surah Al A’raaf Chapter 7: Alif Laam Meem Saad

(ii) Surah Al Raa’d Chapter 13: Alif Laam Meem Raa

e. Combination of five letters occurs twice:

(i) Surah Maryam Chapter 19 begins with Kaaf Haa Yaa ‘Ayn Saad

(ii) Surah Al-Shooraa Chapter 42 begins with Haa Meem ‘Ayn Seen Qaaf

Surah Al-Shooraa Chapter 42 has a double combination of abbreviated letters,

one set of two letters followed by one set of three letters.


2. Meanings of these abbreviated letters


The meaning and purpose of these letters is uncertain. There have been a

variety of explanations offered by Muslim scholars through the ages. A few

among them are:

i. These letters might be abbreviations for certain sentences and words for

instance, Alif Laam Meem means ‘Ana-Allahu-a’Lam’ or Noon meaning Noor

(light), etc.

ii. These letters are not abbreviations but symbols and names of Allah or

something else.

iii. These letters were used for rhyming.

iv. These letters have some numerical significance as the semitic letters also have

numerical values.

v. These letters were used to attract the attention of the Prophet (and later his


Several volumes have been written on the significance of these abbreviations.


3. Best explanation of abbreviated letters


Of all the explanations given by various scholars, the one which is authentic

and also supported by Tafsir of Ibn Katheer, Zamakshari and Ibn Taiymiyyah

(ra) is the following:

The human body, clay and dust are composed of the same fundamental

elements. Yet it would be absurd to say that a human being is exactly the

same as the dust.

We can all go to the market and purchase or have access to the elements that

are found in the human body, and add a few gallons of water. This is the

constitution of the human body. We know the elements in the human body

and yet we cannot understand the secret of life.

Similarly the Qur’an addresses those people who reject its Divine authority. It

tells them that this Qur’an, is in your own language, and composed of the

same letter over which the Arabs took pride.

The Arabs were very proud of their language and Arabic was at its peak when

the Qur’an was revealed. With the letters Alif Laam Meem, Yaa Seen, Haa-

Meem, etc., (in Engllish we would say A, B, C, D) the Qur’an challenges

mankind to produce a Surah at least somewhat similar to the Qur’an in beauty

and eloquence, if they doubt its authenticity.

Initially, the Qur’an challenges all the men and jinn to produce a recital like

the Qur’an and adds that they would not be able to do it even if they back

each other. This challenge is mentioned in Surah Al Israa’ Chapter 17 Verse 88

and in Surah Al Toor Chapter 52 Verse 34.

Later the Qur’an repeats the challenge in Surah Hood Chapter 11 Verse 13 by

saying produce ten Surahs like it and later in Surah Yunus Chapter 10 Verse

38 produce one Surah like it and finally the easiest challenge is given in Surah

Al-Baqarah Chapter 2 Verses 23 and 24.

“And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our

servant, then produce a Surah like thereunto; and call your witnesses or

helpers (if there are any) besides Allah if your doubts are true.

But if ye cannot - and of a surety ye cannot - then fear the fire whose fuel is

men and stones - which is prepared for those who reject faith.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:23-24]

To compare the skill of two artisans, they must be given samples of the same

raw material and their performance is evaluated in performing the same task.

If they are tailors they must be provided with the same fabrics. The raw

materials of the Arabic language are these letters Alif Laam Meem, Yaa Seen

(in English it is A, B, C, D, etc.) The miraculous nature of the language of the

Qur’an does not lie only in the fact that it is the Word of Allah, but also in the

fact that although made up of the same letters in which the pagan Arabs took

pride, it has not been rivalled.

The Arabs are noted for their rhetoric ability, eloquence and meaningful

expression. Just as the constituents of the human body are known to us and

can be obtained by us, the letters comprising the Qur’an, such as Alif Laam

Meem are known to us, and used frequently to formulate words. Life cannot

be created by us, even if we possess knowledge of the constituents of the

human body. Similarly, we cannot produce the same eloquence and beauty of

expression that we find in the Qur’an, despite knowing the letters that

constitute the Qu’ran. The Qur’an thus proves its Divine origin.


4. Miraculous quality of the Qur’an mentioned immediately after these

broken letters


Therefore immediately after these broken letters are mentioned in the Qur’an,

the following Verses speak about the miracle of the Qur’an, and its authority,

e.g. in Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2 Verses 1-2:

Alif Laam Meem. This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to

those who fear Allah.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:1-2]






The Qur’an says that Allah has made the earth for humans as a carpet, which

gives an indication that the earth is flat. Does this not contradict with the

modern science?




1. Earth made as a carpet

The question refers to a Verse from the Qur’an in Surah Nooh:

“And Allah has made the earth for you as a carpet (spread out).”

[Al-Qur’an 71:19]

But the sentence in the above Verse is not complete. It continues in the next

Verse, explaining the previous Verse. It says:

“That ye may go about therein, in spacious roads.”

[Al-Qur’an 71:20]

A similar message is repeated in Surah Taa Haa:

“He Who has made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled

you to go about therein by roads (and channels)...”

[Al-Qur’an 20:53]

The surface of the earth i.e. the earth’s crust is less than 30 kms or 18 miles

in thickness and is very thin as compared to the radius of the earth, which is

about 6371 kms or 3959 miles. The deeper layers of the earth are very hot,

fluid and hostile to any form of life. The earth’s crust is a solidified shell on

which we can live. The Qur’an rightly refers to it like a carpet spread out, so

that we can travel along its roads and paths.


2. Carpet can also be spread on other than an absolute flat surface


Not a single Verse of the Qur’an says that the earth is flat. The Qur’an only

compares the earth’s crust with a carpet. Some people have a misconception

that carpet can only be put on an absolute flat surface. It is very possible to

spread a carpet on a large sphere such as the earth. It can easily be

demonstrated by taking a huge model of the earth’s globe covering it with a


Carpet is generally put on a surface, which is not very comfortable to walk

on. The Qur’an describes the earth’s crust as a carpet, without which human

beings would not be able to survive because of the hot, fluid and hostile

environment beneath it. The Qur’an is thus not only logical, it is mentioning a

scientific fact that was discovered by geologists centuries later.


3. Earth has been spread out


Similarly, the Qur’an says in several Verses that the earth has been spread


“And We have spread out the (spacious) earth: how excellently We do

spread out!”

[Al-Qur’an 51:48]


Similarly the Qur’an also mentions in several other Verses that the earth is an


“Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse”

“And the mountains as pegs?”

[Al-Qur’an 78:6-7]

None of these Verses of the Qur’an contain even the slightest implication

that the earth is flat. It only indicates that the earth is spacious and the

reason for this spaciousness of the earth is mentioned. The Glorious Qur’an


“O My servants who believe! Truly, spacious is My Earth: therefore serve ye

Me – (And Me alone)!”

[Al-Qur’an 29:56]

Therefore none can give the excuse, that he could not do good and was

forced to do evil because of the surroundings and circumstances.


4. Earth is Geospherical in Shape


The Qur’an mentions the actual shape of the earth in the following Verse:

“And we have made the earth egg shaped.”

[Al-Qur’an 79:30]

The Arabic word ‘Dahaha’ means egg-shaped. It also means an expanse.

‘Dahaha’ is derived from Duhiya, which specifically refers to the egg of an

ostrich, which is geospherical in shape, exactly like the shape of the earth.

Thus the Qur’an and modern established science are in perfect harmony.







The Qur’an says that only Allah knows the sex of the child in the womb of the

mother but now science has advanced and we can easily determine the sex of

the child in the womb by Ultrasonography. Isn’t this Verse of the Qur’an

conflicting with Science?




1. Allah has knowledge of all things


Many people believe that the Qur’an claims that Allah alone knows the sex of

the child in the mother’s womb. The Glorious Qur’an says:

“Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with Allah (alone). It is He who sends

down Rain, and He who knows what is in the wombs….”

[Al-Qur’an 31:34]

A similar message is given in the following Verse:

“Allah doth know what every female (womb) doth bear, by how much the

wombs fall short (of their time of number) or do exceed. Every single thing is

before His sight, in (due) proportion.”

[Al-Qur’an 13:8]


2. Sex can be determined by Ultrasonography


Today science is advanced and we can easily determine the sex of the child in

the womb of a pregnant mother, using ultrasonography.


3. The word ‘sex’ is not mentioned in the Verse of the Qur’an


It is true that many translations and commentaries of this Verse of the

Glorious Qur’an say that only Allah knows the sex of the child in the mother’s

womb. If you read the Arabic text of this Verse, there is no Arabic word

corresponding to the English word ‘sex’. Infact the Qur’an says the knowledge

of what is in the womb is with Allah alone. Many commentators have

misunderstood it to mean only Allah knows the sex of the child in the womb

which is a mistake.


4. No one besides Allah can determine the nature


This Verse does not refer to the sex of the child in the womb but it refers to

how the child in the mother’s womb will be. How will his nature be? Will he be

a blessing or a curse to his parents? Will he be a boon or a bane to the

society? Will he be good or evil? Will he go to heaven or hell? The complete

knowledge of all things is with Allah alone. No scientist in the world, no matter

how advanced his equipment, will ever be able to accurately determine the

knowledge of these things about the child in the mother’s womb.




The Qur’an says that Allah has put a seal on the hearts of the Kaafirs and they

will not believe. Science tells us today that the brain is responsible for

understanding and believing and not the heart. Isn’t this contradicting with





1. Allah has set a seal on the heart of the Kaafirs


The Glorious Qur’an says:

“As to those who reject Faith it is the same to them whether thou warn them

or do not warn them; they will not believe.

Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing and on their eyes is a

veil - Great is the penalty they incur.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:6-7]


2. The word ‘Qalb’ in Arabic means heart as well as intelligence

The Arabic word ‘Qalb’ used in these Verses means the heart. It also means

intelligence. Thus the above Verses also mean that Allah has put a seal on the

intelligence of the Kaafirs (unbelievers) and they will not understand and


3. In the Arabic language heart is also used as a centre of



In the Arabic language the word ‘Qalb’ which means ‘heart’ is also used for

one’s centre of understanding.

4. Several words used in English language whose literal meaning is



Even in English language there are several words which are used to explain

something, though the literal meaning of these words are different. Consider

the following examples


a. Lunatic - struck by the moon


The word ‘lunatic’ literally means ‘struck by the moon’. Today people use

the word lunatic for a person who is insane or mentally unstable. People

very well know that a mad or a mentally unstable person is not struck by

the moon. Yet even a medical doctor uses this word. This is how a

language is developed.


b. Disaster – An evil star


The word ‘disaster’ literally means an evil star. Today the word disaster is

used for a great or sudden misfortune or calamity. We know very well

that a misfortune has nothing to do with an evil star.


c. Trivial – three roads meet


The word trivial literally means where three roads meet. Today the word

trivial is used for something of small nature or little importance. We know

very well that something of small value has nothing to do with where

three roads meet.


d. Sunrise and Sunset


Sunrise literally means rising of the sun. Today when the word sunrise is

used most of the people know that the earth is rotating and is moving in

relation to the sun. Most of us know that the sun does not rise during

sunrise. However even an astronomer uses the word sunrise. Similarly we

know that during sunset, the sun does not actually set.


5. In the English language heart is the centre of love and emotion


In the English language heart means an organ in the body which pumps

blood. The same word heart is also used for the centre of thought, love and

emotion. Today we know that brain is the centre of thought, love and

emotion. Yet while expressing emotions a person is likely to say ‘I love you

from the bottom of my heart’. Imagine a scientist telling his wife, ‘I love you

from the bottom of my heart’ and the wife replies, “Don’t you even know the

basics of science, that the brain is responsible for the emotions and not the

heart?” Infact you should say, “I love you from the bottom of my brain.”


6. Arabs know that heart is also used for centre of thought and



No Arab will ever ask the question as to why Allah has sealed the hearts of the

Kaafir because he knows that in this context it refers to the centre of thought,

understanding and emotions.


12. HOOR




According to the Qur’an when a man enters Paradise, he will get ‘hoor’, i.e.

beautiful maidens. What will a woman have when she enters Paradise?




1. Hoor mentioned in the Qur’an


The word ‘hoor’ occurs in the Qur’an in no less than four different places:

(1) In Surah Al Dukhaan Chapter 44, Verse 54

“Moreover, We shall join them to companions with beautiful, big and lustrous


[Al-Qur’an 44:54]

(2) In Surah Al-Toor Chapter 52 Verse 20

“...And We shall join them to companions, with beautiful, big and lustrous


[Al-Qur’an 52:20]

(3) In Surah Al Rahmaan Chapter 55 Verse 72

“Companions restrained (as to their glances), in goodly pavilions.”

[Al-Qur’an 55:72]


 (4) In Surah Al-Waaqi’ah Chapter 56 Verse 22

“And (there will be) companions with beautiful, big, and lustrous eyes.”

[Al-Qur’an 56:22]

2. Hoor Translated as Beautiful Maidens


Most translators of the Qur’an have translated the word ‘hoor’ as ‘beautiful

maidens’. If ‘hoor’ means ‘beautiful maidens’ or girls, then they are meant only

for the men. Hence, what will the women get if they enter Paradise?


3. Women will get something exceptional in Paradise


Most scholars say that in context, the word ‘Hoor’ used in the Qur’an refers

only to ladies since gents are addressed. A reply that would be accepted by all

types of people would rather be the answer given in the Hadith of Sahih Al

Bukhari, Vol. 4, The Book of Beginning of Creation, Chapter No. 8, Hadith No.


The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Allah said: I have prepared for My pious slaves

(whether man or woman) things which have neither been seen by an eye, nor

heard by an ear, nor (even) imagined by a human being. If you wish, you can

recite this verse from the Glorious Qur’an: ‘No person knows what is kept

hidden for them of joy’ (Surah Al Sajdah 32:17)”, indicating that even the

women will get something exceptional in Paradise.






If Allah has sealed the hearts of the Kuffaar i.e. non-Muslims, then why are

they to be blamed for not accepting Islam?




1. Allah has sealed the hearts of those who are continuously bent

on rejecting the truth


Allah (swt) mentions in Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2 Verses 6 and 7

“As to those who reject Faith, it is the same to them whether thou warn them

or do not warn them; they will not believe.

Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is

a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).”

[Al-Qur’an 2:6-7]

These Verses do not refer to common Kuffaar who reject faith. The Arabic

words used are ‘Al-lazeena kafaroo’, those who are bent on rejecting the

truth. It will not make any difference to such people whether you warn them

or not, they will not believe. Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their

hearing and on their eyes is a veil. It is not because Allah has set a seal on

their hearts that these Kuffaar do not understand and believe, but it is the

viceversa. It is because these Kuffaar are bent on rejecting the truth and

whether you warn them or not they will not believe. Allah has set a seal on

their hearts. Therefore Allah is not to be blamed, but these Kuffaar who are

bent on rejecting the faith are responsible.


2. Example of teacher predicting a student will fail


Suppose an experienced teacher, before the final examinations, predicts that a

particular student will fail in the exams, since the student is very mischievous,

not attentive in class and does not do his homework. If after the student

appears for the examination, he fails, who is to be blamed for the student

failing: the teacher or the student? Just because the teacher predicted, it does

not mean that the teacher is to be blamed but the student himself is

responsible for his failure.

Similarly, Allah (swt) knows in advance that there are some people who are

bent on rejecting the faith and Allah has put a seal on their hearts. Thus these

Non-Muslims themselves are responsible for rejecting the faith and not Allah









The Qur’an mentions in several places that the heavens and the earth were

created in 6 days but in Surah Fussilat it says that the heavens and the earth

were created in 8 days. Isn’t this a contradiction? The same Verse also says

that the earth was created in 6 days and then later on the heavens were

created in 2 days. This is against the Big Bang theory that the heavens and

the earth were created simultaneously. Doesn’t the Qur’an conflict with

modern science?




1. Heavens and the Earth created in Six days


I do agree that the Qur’an says that the heavens and the earth were created

in 6 days i.e. 6 epochs and it is mentioned in several places including:

Surah Al A’raaf Chapter 7 Verse 54

Surah Yoonus Chapter 10 Verse 3

Surah Hood Chapter 11 Verse 7

Surah Al Furqaan Chapter 25 Verse 59

Surah Al Sajdah Chapter 32 Verse 4

Surah Qaaf Chapter 50 Verse 38

Surah Al Hadeed Chapter 57 Verse 4

The Verses of the Qur’an which according to you say that the heavens and the

earth were created in 8 days are Surah Fussilat Chapter 41 Verses 9 to 12:

 “Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two days? And do ye

join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds;

He set on the (earth) mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed

blessings on the earth, and measured therein all things to give them

nourishment in due proportion, in four days, in accordance with (the needs of)

those who seek (sustenance).”

Moreover, He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as)

smoke. He said to it and to the earth. “Come ye together, willingly or

unwillingly. They said: “We do come (together), in willing obedience.”

So He completed them as seven firmaments in two days and He assigned to

each heaven its duty and command and We adorned the lower heaven with

lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the decree of (Him) the exalted in

might, full of knowledge.

[Al-Qur’an 41:9-12]


On the face of it, it seems that these Verses of the Qur’an give the initial

impression that the heavens and the earth were created in 8 days.

Allah says in the beginning of this Verse that those who exploit this

information contained in this passage to raise doubts about its authenticity are

equally interested in promulgating blasphemy and denying His unity. Allah is

telling us that in course of time, there will emerge unbelievers who will make

use of this apparent contradiction.


2. ‘Summa’ means moreover


If you analyse these Verses carefully, it speaks about 2 different creations: the

earth and the heaven. The earth excluding the mountains was created in 2

days and the mountains were set on the earth standing firm and blessed and

measured its sustenance in 4 days. Therefore the earth along with the

mountains were created in 6 days according to Verse 9 and 10. Verse 11 and

12 say, moreover the heavens were created in 2 days. The Arabic word used

in the beginning of Verse 11 of Surah Fussilat is ‘summa’ which means; ‘then’,

‘moreover’ or ‘simultaneously’. There are certain Qur’anic translations, which

have used ‘then’ for the word ‘summa’ which, indicates ‘afterwards’. If ‘then’ is

wrongly used for ‘summa’ then the total of the creation of heaven and earth

will be 8 days which will conflict with other Verses of the Qur’an which say

heavens and the earth were created in 6 days and will also conflict with the

Big Bang Theory as well as the Verse of the Qur’an Surah Al Ambiya Chapter

21 Verse 30 which says that heavens and the earth were created


Qur’an mentions in Surah Al Ambiyaa’, Chapter No. 21, Verse No. 30

“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined

together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder?”

[Al-Qur’an 21:30]


Therefore the correct translation of the word ‘summa’ in this Verse would be

‘moreover’. Abdullah Yusuf Ali has rightly translated the word ‘summa’ as

moreover which clearly gives an indication that while the earth along with the

mountains, etc. were created in 6 days, simultaneously the heavens were

created in 2 days. Therefore the total does not come to 8 days but 6 days.

If a builder says that he will construct a 10 storey building and surrounding

compound wall in 6 months and after completion of his project he gives a

more detailed account saying that the basement of the building was built in 2

months and the 10 storeys took 4 months. Simultaneously, while the

basement and the building was being constructed, he also constructed the

surrounding of the building along with the compound wall which took 2

months. Therefore both his first and second descriptions are not contradicting

but the second statement gives a more detailed account for the construction.


3. Heavens and the Earth created simultaneously


The Qur’an describes the creation of the universe in several places, sometimes

it says the heavens and the earth (7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 32:4, 50:38, 57:4)

while in other places it says earth and the heaven (49:9-12, 2:29, 20:4) thus

further supplementing the Verse of Surah Al Ambiya Chapter 21 Verse 30

which speaks about the Big Bang and that the heavens and the earth were

created simultaneously.

Similarly in Surah Al-Baqarah Chapter 2 Verse 29

“It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover He

turned to the heaven and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things

He hath perfect knowledge.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:29]

“It is who has created for you all things on the earth ‘summa’ (simultaneously)

made the heaven into seven firmaments.”


Here also if you wrongly translate ‘summa’ as ‘then’, only then would this

Verse contradict the Big Bang theory and other Verses of the Qur’an.

Therefore the correct translation of the word ‘summa’ is ‘moreover’ or








At one place the Qur’an mentions that man is created from sperm and in

another place it mentions that man is created from dust. Doesn’t the Qur’an

contradict itself?




1. Man created from sperm and dust


The Qur’an mentions that the human beings are created from sperm, in

several Verses including the following Verse from Surah Al-Qiyaamah, Chapter

No. 75, Verse No. 37:

“Was he not a drop of sperm emitted (in lowly form)?”

[Al-Qur’an 75:37]

The Qur’an also mentions in several places that humans were created from

dust. The following Verse makes a reference to the origin of humans:

“(Consider) that We created you out of dust.”

[Al-Qur’an 22:5]

We now know that all the elements present in the human body, i.e. the

constituents of the human body are all present in the earth in small or great

quantities. Scientifically it gives weightage to the Qur’anic Verse that says that

man was created from dust.

In certain Verses, the Qur’an says that man was created from sperm, while in

other Verses it says that man was created from dust. However this is not a

contradiction. Contradiction means statements, which are opposite or

conflicting and cannot both be true simultaneously.


2. Man created from water


In certain places the Qur’an also says that man was created from water. For

instance in Surah Al-Furqaan it says:

“It is He Who has

Created man from water…”

[Al-Qur’an 25:54]

Science has proved all the three statements to be correct. Man has been

created from sperm, dust as well as water.


3. It is a Contradistinction and not Contradiction


Suppose I say that in order to make a cup of tea one needs water. One also

needs tea leaves or tea powder. The two statements are not contradictory

since both water and tea leaves are required in order to make a cup of tea.

Furthermore if I want sweet tea I can even add sugar.

Thus, there is no contradiction in the Qur’an when it says that man is created

from sperm, dust and water. It is not a contradiction but a contradistinction.

Contradistinction means speaking about two different concepts on the same

subject without conflict. For instance, if I say that a man is always honest,

kind and loving, it is a contradistinction, but if I say that the man is always

truthful and a habitual liar then it is a contradiction.






It is mentioned in one Verse of the Qur’an that Allah is the Lord of two Easts

and two Wests. How can you explain this Verse of the Qur’an scientifically?




1. Qur’an mentions Allah is the Lord of two Easts and two Wests


The Verse of the Qur’an which refers to Allah being the Lord of two easts

and two wests is the following Verse from Surah Al-Rahmaan:

“(He is) Lord of the two Easts and Lord of the two Wests”

[Al-Qur’an 55:17]

In the original Arabic script, the words east and west have been used in the

dual form. It implies that Allah is the Lord of two easts and two wests.


2. Allah is the Lord of both the extremes of East and West


We learn in geography that the sun rises from the east, but the point of

sunrise keeps shifting throughout the year. Only on two days of the year

known as ‘equinox’, does the sun rise exactly from due east. On the

remaining days, it rises either from a little north or a little south of due east.

During summer solstice the sun rises from one extreme of the east and

during winter solstice it rises from the other extreme. Similarly, the sun sets

in one extreme of the west in summer solstice. It sets in the other extreme

of the west in winter solstice. This phenomenon can be easily seen in

Mumbai or any other city, by people living in certain areas, or in tall

skyscraper buildings, from where the rising or setting of sun can be seen.

They are able to notice that during the summer solstice the sun rises from

one extreme of east and during winter solstice it rises from the other

extreme of east. In short, through-out the year, the sun keeps rising from


different points of the east and sets on different points of the west. Thus

when the Qur’an refers to Allah as the Lord of two easts and two wests, it

means that Allah is the Lord of both the extremes of east and both the

extremes of west.


3. The Glorious Qur’an mentions ‘Mashriqaini’ i.e. two easts in Surah

Al Zukhruf Chapter 43, Verse 38:


“At length, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says (to his evil companion):

Would that between me and thee were the distance of east and west! Ah!

Evil is the companion (indeed)!

Most commentators have translated the Arabic words ‘Ba’dal Mashriqaini’ as

distance of east and west meaning poles apart for easy understanding. In

classical Arabic, if two opposites are referred, then one is referred in the dual

form. But the literal translation means distance between 2 easts i.e. the two

extreme points of east which similarly means poles apart.


4. Allah is the Lord of all the points of the East and West


Arabic language has two types of plurals. One is the dual plural i.e. the plural

that implies the existence of two. The other is the plural for more than two,

i.e. three and above. In Surah Al Rahmaan Verse 17 the Arabic words used

are ‘mashriqaini’ and ‘magribaini’ which are in dual plural and therefore imply

two easts and two wests.

Consider the following Verse of the Qur’an:

“Now I do call to witness the Lord of all points in the East and the West.”

[Al-Qur’an 70:40]


The Arabic words for east and west used in this verse are ‘mashaariqi’ and

‘maghaaribi’ which are plurals that imply the existence of more than two.

We can thus conclude that the Qur’an refers to Allah being the Lord of all the

points in the east and all the points of the west, as well as the Lord of both

the extreme points of east and both the extreme points of west, as well as all

the points in between both the extremes.








A particular Verse of the Qur’an says that one day in the sight of Allah is equal

to 1000 years. In another Verse of the Qur’an it says that one day is equal to

50,000 years. Isn’t the Qur’an contradicting itself?





1. Time of Allah is incomparable to earthly time


The Qur’an says in two Verses, (22:47 and 32:5), that the measure of one day

in the sight of Allah is equal to 1,000 years of our reckoning. In another Verse

(70:4) it says that the measure of one day in the sight of Allah is equal to

50,000 years of our reckoning.

These Verses generally mean that the time of Allah (swt) is incomparable to

the earthly time. The examples given are of one thousand years and fifty

thousand years of the earthly time. In other words thousands of years or a

very, very long time of the earth is equal to a day in the sight of Allah:


2. ‘Yaum’ also means Period


The Arabic word used in all these three Verses is ‘yaum’, which, besides

meaning a day also means a long period, or an epoch. If you translate the

word yaum correctly as ‘period’ there will be no confusion.

a) The Verse from Surah Al Hajj reads as:

“Yet they ask thee to hasten on the Punishment! But Allah will not fail in His

promise. Verily a Day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your


[Al-Qur’an 22:47]


When the unbelievers asked to hasten the punishment, the Qur’an says that

Allah will not fail in His promise. Verily a period in the sight of Allah is like a

thousand years of your reckoning.

b) The Verse from Surah Al-Sajdah says:

“He rules (all) affairs from the heavens to the earth: in the end will (all affairs)

go up? To Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be (as) a thousand years of

your reckoning”.

[Al-Qur’an 32:5]


This Verse indicates that a period required for all the affairs to go up to Allah

(swt), is a thousand years of our reckoning.

c) A Verse from Surah Al-Maa’arij says:

“The angels and the spirit ascend unto Him in a Day the measure

whereof is (as) fifty thousand years”.

[Al-Qur’an 70:4]


This Verse means that the period required for angels and the spirits to

ascend unto Allah (swt) is fifty thousand years.

d) The period for two different acts need not be the same. For example the

period required for me to travel from Mumbai to destination ‘A’ say

Panvel is one hour and the period required for me to travel to destination

‘B’ i.e. Srinagar is 50 hours. This does not indicate that I am making two

contradictory statements.


Thus the Verses of the Qur’an not only do not contradict each other, they

are also in perfect harmony with established modern scientific facts.







The Qur’an in several places says that Iblees was an angel, but in Surah Al

Kahf, it says that Iblees was a Jinn. Isn’t this a contradiction in the Qur’an?



1. Incidence of Iblees and Angel mentioned in the Qur’an


The story of Adam and Iblees is mentioned in the Qur’an in various places in

which Allah (swt) says,

“We said to the angels bow down to Adam: and they bowed down: not so



This is mentioned in:

Surah Al-Baqarah Chapter 2 Verse 43

Surah Al-A’raaf Chapter 7 Verse 11

Surah Al-Hijr Chapter 15 Verses 28-31

Surah Al-Israa’ Chapter 17 Verse 61

Surah Taa Haa Chapter 20 Verse 116

Surah Saad Chapter 38 Verses 71-74

But in Surah Al-Kahf Chapter 18 Verse 50, the Qur’an says:

“Behold! We said to the angels, ‘Bow down to Adam.’ They bowed down

except Iblees, he was one of the Jinns…”

[Al-Qur’an 18:50]


2. Arabic Rule of Taghleeb


The English translation of the first part of the Verse ‘We said to the angels

bow down to Adam: they bowed down except Iblees’, gives us the impression

that Iblees was an angel. The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic. In Arabic

grammar there is a rule known as ‘Taghleeb’, according to which, if the

majority is addressed even the minority is included. If for example, I address

an audience of 100 people of whom 99 are doctors and one is an engineer,

and if I say in Arabic that all the doctors should stand up, it includes the

engineer as well. I need not mention him separately.

Similarly in the Qur’an, when Allah addressed the angels, even Iblees was

present, but it is not required that he be mentioned separately. Therefore

according to that sentence Iblees may be an angel or may not be an angel but

we come to know from Surah Al-Kahf Chapter 18 Verse 50 that Iblees was a

Jinn. Nowhere does the Qur’an say that Iblees was an angel. Therefore there

is no contradiction in the Qur’an.

3. Jinns have freewill and can disobey Allah

Secondly, Jinns have a freewill and may or may not obey Allah, but angels

have no freewill and always obey Allah. Therefore the question of an angel

disobeying Allah does not arise. This further supplements that Iblees was a

Jinn and not an angel.







According to Arun Shourie there is a mathematical error in the Qur’an. In

Chapter 4 Verses 11 and 12 when you add up the different parts of

inheritance given to the heirs, it is more than one. Therefore the author of the

Qur’an does not know mathematics.




The Qur’an mentions about inheritance in many places, in:

Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2 Verse 180

Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2 Verse 240

Surah Al Nisaa’ Chapter 4 Verses 7 to 9

Surah Al Nisaa’ Chapter 4 Verses 19 and 33

Surah Al Maa‘idah Chapter 5 Verses 105 and 108

Regarding the share of inheritance it is clearly given in Surah Al Nisaa’ Chapter

4 Verses 11, 12 and 176.

Let us examine these Verses quoted by Arun Shourie:


 “Allah (swt) (thus) directs you as regards your children’s (inheritance): to the

male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more,

their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half.

For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left

children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a

third; if the deceased left brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The

distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know

not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These

are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.”

“In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child; but if

they leave child, ye get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts. In what

ye leave, their share is a fourth, if ye leave no child; but if ye leave a child,

they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts.”

[Al-Qur’an 4:11-12]


Islam explains the law of inheritance in great detail. The broad and basic

outline is given in the Qur’an and the minute details are given in the Ahadith

i.e. the tradition and sayings of the Prophet (pbuh).

A person can spend his full life only on the research of the Islamic law of

inheritance with its various permutations and combinations. Arun Shourie

expects to know the law only by superficially reading two Verses of the Qur’an

without knowing the criteria.

It is similar to a person who wants to solve a mathematical equation but does

not know the basic rule of mathematics, i.e. BODMAS which says that in a

mathematical equation, irrespective of which mathematical sign appears first,

you will first solve BODMAS:

1st Brackets Off, 2nd Division, 3rd Multiplication, 4th Addition and 5th

Subtraction. If Arun Shourie does not know mathematics and first does

multiplication then subtraction, then brackets off, then division and finally

addition, the answer that he will obtain is bound to be wrong.

Similarly, when the Qur’an mentions the law of inheritance in Surah Al Nisaa’

Chapter 4 Verses 11 and 12, even though the children’s share is mentioned

first and then that of the parents and spouses, according to the law of

inheritance in Islam after paying off the debts and liabilities first, the share is

given to the spouses and the parents depending on whether the deceased has

left children or not, and whatever portion of wealth is remaining is divided

between the sons and the daughters according to their respective shares.

So where does the question arise of the total coming to more than one? So it

is not Allah who does not know mathematics but it is Arun Shourie himself

who is ignorant about mathematics.






The Qur’an says several times that Allah is the Most Merciful and Forgiving but

also says many times that He gives severe punishment. Is He Forgiving or





1. Allah is Most Merciful


The Qur’an says several times that Allah is the Most Merciful. Infact all the 114

Surahs i.e. Chapters of the Glorious Qur’an except for Surah Al Tawbah,

(Chapter 9) begin with the beautiful formula,

which means, “In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”


2. Allah is Forgiving


The Glorious Qur’an mentions in several Verses including Surah Al Nisaa’,

Chapter 4 Verse 25 and Surah Al Maa’idah, Chapter 5 Verse 74:

“And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”


3. Allah gives severe punishment to the deserving


Allah besides being Merciful and Forgiving is also strict in giving punishment to

the deserving. The Qur’an mentions in several Verses that Allah will give

severe punishment to the unbelievers and rejecters of faith. He will give

punishment to all those who disobey Him. Several Verses of the Qur’an

describe the various types of severe punishments that Allah will give in hell to

all those who disobey.


“Those who reject our Signs, we shall soon cast into the Fire; as often as their

skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they

may taste the Penalty: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.”

[Al-Qur’an 4:56]


4. Allah is Just


The question is whether Allah is forgiving or revengeful. An important point to

be noted is that Allah besides being Merciful and Forgiving, He also has to give

severe punishment to the deserving wicked or evil people, because He is also

Just. The Qur’an mentions in Surah Al Nisaa’:

“Allah is never unjust in the least degree.”

[Al-Qur’an 4:40]


It is further mentioned in Surah Al-Ambiyaa’:

“We shall set up scales of justice for the day of Judgement, so that not a soul

will be dealt with unjustly in the least. And if there be (no more than) the

weight of a mustard seed, we will bring it (to account): and enough are we to

take account.”

[Al-Qur’an 21:47]


5. Example - Teacher forgives a student who copies in the examination


If during an examination, a student copies and the teacher who supervises in

the examination catches the student red-handed. The teacher out of mercy

and kindness, forgives him and allows him to continue copying. Those

students who have worked hard for the examination will not call the teacher

merciful and kind but will call him unjust. This merciful act of the teacher will

encourage the other students to also copy. If all the teachers are ‘merciful’

and ‘kind’ and allow the students to copy then no student will ever study for

examinations and all will pass with flying colours by copying. The theoretical

results of the examinations will be excellent in which all the students will pass

with first class and distinction but practically these students will be a failure in

life. The whole purpose of the examination would be defeated.


6. This Life is a Test for the Hereafter:


The life of this world is a test for the Hereafter. The Qur’an says in Surah Al


“He who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed;

and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving.”

[Al-Qur’an 67:2]


7. If Allah forgives all and punishes none, who will obey him?


If Allah (swt) forgives each and every human being and punishes no one, then

why should the human beings obey His commands. I do agree that no one will

go to hell, but this world would become hell to live in where most of the

people would be robbing, cheating, raping, killing etc. Furthermore if all

human beings are going to go to heaven then this life cannot be called a test

for the hereafter.


8. Allah only forgives if a person repents


Allah (swt) only forgives if a person repents. The Qur’an says in Surah Al-

Zumar, Chapter 39 Verses 53-55:

“Say: ‘O my servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not

of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most


“Turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His (will), before the penalty

comes on you - after that ye shall not be helped.”

“And follow the best of (the courses) revealed to you from your Lord, before

the penalty comes on you - of a sudden, while ye perceive not!’ ”

[Al-Qur’an 39:53-55]

There are four criteria for repentance: first, agree that the act is wrong.

Secondly, stop it immediately. Thirdly, never do it again in the future and

lastly, compensate for the loss if caused to anyone.