Ramadhaan – A Date with Dr. Zakir

 

Episode 27

 

Qadha Fasts, Fidia And Kaffara of Fasts

 

(Duration – 47 minutes)

 

Yusuf Chambers: Dear Brothers and sisters in Islam and Humanity, Assalamu Alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh, may the peace, the mercy and the blessings of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) be on all of you. Welcome to the show ‘Ramadhaan- A date with Dr Zakir.’ I am your host, Yusuf Chambers, and today we will be discussing the topic ‘Qadha Fasts, Fidia and Kaffara Fasts’. Dr Zakir, Assalamualaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh!

 

Dr. Zakir: Walaikum Assalam Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh

 

Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir, the first question I’d like to level at you regarding the topic is could you explain what is the meaning of Qadha Fast? 

 

Dr. Zakir: Alhamdulillah was salaatu was salaam ala rasoolillah wa ala aalihi wa ashaabihi wa ajma’een. Amaa Ba’ad

 

A’uzu billahi minash shaytan nir-rajeem,

Bismillah hirrahman nirraheem, 

 

Rabbish rahli Şadri Wa Yassir Li 'Amri Wa Ahlul `Uqdatan Min Lisani Yafqahu Qawli  

 

The word Qadha means to fulfill or compensate fast which were due and they could not be executed..means if there is a Fard Fast which you could not keep for some valid reason then it has to be compensated or fulfilled later on. If there is a valid excuse that you could not keep a fast during Ramadhaan whether it be the person was traveling or he was sick or a lady was menstruating etc. then the fast has to be made up later on after the month of Ramadhaan or if a person breaks the fast for a valid reason whether he was sick or if he was traveling or if a lady was menstruating etc. then the fats has to be made up immediately after Ramadhaan as soon as possible.

 

Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 185 

“Fasting was prescribed for a fixed period but if any of you is ill or on a journey then it should be made up later in the other days.”

 

Means if you could not fast for a valid reason then you should make up the fast later on.

 

For example if suppose someone is sick or is traveling for the full month then the full month should be made later on. If the month of Ramadhaan was for 29 days then the person should fast for 29 days later on. If the month of Ramadhaan was for 30 days then the person should fast for 30 days.

 

Besides the fast for Ramadhaan if it was obligatory fast that a person says that if he has vowed that he will fast on so and so days if such a thing is fulfilled then he is supposed to fast and if he could not fast for a valid reason even that should be made up later on and even that is called as a Qadha fast. 

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay thank you very much for the first answer, JazakAllah Khair. Now is it incumbent upon a Muslim who is fasting in the month of Ramadhaan who misses some of the fasts in Ramadhaan to immediately make up the fast after Ramadhaan?

 

Dr. Zakir: It is not compulsory that a person misses any fast in the month of Ramadhaan, he should make it up immediately, he can make it up any time before the next Ramadhaan comes. If suppose he has missed 10 fasts in the month of Ramadhaan then it becomes obligatory as a last resort that if 10 days are left for Ramadhaan then it becomes Fard that he should start making up the fast. But the general ruling is that the person can make up anytime before the next Ramadhaan  starts but its always preferable that it should me made as early as possible because a person does not know how long he will live may be he can die etc. and there is a Hadith mentioned in 

 

Sahih Bukhari vol. no. 3 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 1950 where

 

“Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) she says that she sometimes missed some days of fasting in the month of Ramadhaan and she could not make up the fast except in the month of Sha’baan.” And the narrator adds that because she was serving the Prophet. 

 

So from this Hadith we come to know that there is no time limit, it should me made as early as possible but the latest is before the next Ramadhaan and as far as possible a person should not delay making the fast, he should make up the fast as early as possible that is the best but the maximum he can do, the latest is before the next Ramadhaan as 

 

Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Ale Imran ch. no. 3 verse no. 133 that 

 

“They are quick in the race for asking forgiveness from Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala),” asking forgiveness form their Lord “and for paradise whose width is as much as the heavens and the earth which has been prepared for the Muttaqeen, which has been prepared for those who are righteous.”

 

Allah repeats a similar message in Surah Mo’minoon ch. no. 23 verse no. 61 

 

“It is these who hasten every good work and they are the ones who are the most foremost.”

 

So based on these Aayats its best that you should do your Qadha fasts as early as possible so that there is nothing which is due on you.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay, JazakAllah Khair once again, Dr. Zakir, for the answer. Next question relates to a person who is making up an obligatory fast perhaps after the month of Ramadhaan what is the ruling if a person breaks the fast while making up for an obligatory fast?

 

Dr. Zakir: When a person is making up for the obligatory fast he has missed when he is doing the Qadha fast and if he breaks that fast, it is the same ruling as when a person is fasting in the month of Ramadhaan, it is the same ruling. And if a person breaks the fast while making obligatory fast if it’s a valid reason for example he get sick or he is traveling or if a lady has her menstruation then that person should make up the fast as soon as possible before the next Ramadhaan comes.

 

And if a person breaks the fast while making up for the missed fasts without a valid reason then he should seek for Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala)’s forgiveness and he should repent and again make up the fast as early as possible before the next Ramadhaan. 

 

Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir is the heir obliged to make up the fast for the one who dies before he makes up his obligatory fast and secondly is a person allowed to fast for a person who is alive but is unable to fast due to some legitimate reason may be like sickness or such like?

 

Dr. Zakir: All the scholars agree that if a person is alive for example and if he does not offer Salaah no one else can offer on his behalf. Similarly if a person misses any fast for any valid reason, he may be sick or for example he is continuously sick or he is very old so no one else can keep the fast on his behalf. As the Qur’an says in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. No. 2 verse no. 184 that 

 

“If a person finds it difficult to keep the fast then he should feed a poor person, he should feed an indigent person.”

 

So here if a person is alive and if he cannot keep his fast for a valid reason like continuous sickness or old age, old man, old woman then 1 person should be fed for every fast, he or she misses. This is the ruling.

 

As far as the first question is concerned that if a person dies before he could make up for the fast that he was suppose to keep so what’s the ruling? Should the heir, should they fast on his behalf once he dies? As far as this ruling is concerned there are 2 groups of scholars and there are 2 opinions for it. As far as the ruling is concerned for this case there are 2 opinions. 

 

One group of scholars they say that the heir or the guardian they should keep the fast of a person who has died and who ought to have fasted based on the Hadith of Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), its mentioned in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 1952, 

 

“Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), she says that a person who has died who ought to have fasted then his guardians should fast on his behalf.”

 

So based on this Hadith the first group of scholars, they say the guardian or the heir; they should make up for the fast when a person dies who ought to have fasted. 

 

But there is another group of scholars who say that, that’s not required but a person should be fed on his behalf. Based on the Hadith on Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) which is there in 

Muhalla Ibne Hazm Vol. no. 4 Pg. no. 422 where 

 

“Amrah (may Allah be pleased with her), she asked Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) that her mother had missed some of the fasts during the month of Ramadhaan so she asks Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) that can she fast on behalf of her mother? So Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said that “no, she should not fast on behalf of her mother but she should give charity equivalent to one Sa’a that feeds a person for every fast that she has missed.”

 

So since both these 2 Hadith contradict the second group of scholars what they say, the second opinion is that here it’s specifically mentioned that the fasts that were missed were the fast of Ramadhaan. Whereas the first Hadith of Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 Hadith no. 1952, It’s a general Hadith saying that a person who died who ought to have fasted so that’s a general Hadith but this Hadith is a specific Hadith which says these were the fast that were missed due to Ramadhaan. And here the ruling is according to Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) that the fast should not be made up but one indigent person, one poor person should be fed. So since both the Hadith cannot contradict and both the Hadith are Sahih so the scholars, they say that if a person misses the fast of Ramadhaan then the fasting need not be made up but the right ruling is that one person should be fed who is poor.

 

The other general Hadith, they say it indicates for a person who has vowed to fast. So if the person vows to Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) that he or she will fast if certain wish is fulfilled at that time its obligatory that the heir or the person who has died should make up the fast and further a similar thing is mentioned by Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), its mentioned in 

 

Sunan Abu Dawud Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 2395, 

 

“Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), he says that “if a person dies who has missed his fast in Ramadhaan then you should feed one poor person for every fast that he has missed.”

 

And you need not make up for the fast; there is no atonement for the fast. But if a person has vowed to fast… if he has vowed that he will fast if some wish is fulfilled then in that case there is atonement of the fast and that fast should be fulfilled by the heir or by the guardian. 

 

So based on these 2 Hadith because it cannot contradict that’s the reason the opinion is divided that if it’s a fat of Ramadhaan which he has missed then the right ruling is that one person should be fed for every fast missed. 

 

Further there is one more Hadith in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 1953 where it says, 

 

“Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), he says that a person came to the Prophet and asked him that his mother had to make up for one month of fasting so should he fast on her behalf. So the Prophet said “yes” he gave the answer in the affirmative. And it’s good to make up the fast.”

 

But since again this is a general Hadith, it’s not specifically mentioning whether it’s the fast of Ramadhaan which is missed or whether it’s the fast of vowing. And since we cannot agree that the Sahih Hadith contradict so the best is the second opinion that if a person misses in any fast in the month of Ramadhaan then one poor person should be fed on his behalf but if a person vows and does not fulfill the fast in this case the fast should be made up by the heir.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay, Shukran. Dr. Zakir, if a person is fasting during the month of Ramadhaan and unfortunately he passes away, he dies, person who takes charge of his affairs after his death, is that person obliged to make up the fast that he has missed during the month of Ramadhaan?

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as a person when he dies, once he dies then all his actions, they cease to exist as Hadith of our Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam), its mentioned in 

 

Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 3 in the Book of Wasiyyah Hadith no. 4005, the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said that 

 

“Once a person dies only thing that will continue amongst all his deeds is the recurring charity that he has made or the knowledge that he has spread, that he has used to benefit the people and the third is his son praying for him.”

 

So besides these 3 things, everything else ceases so but natural when a person dies and if he had fasted may be for 10 days of Ramadhaan, he dies on the 10th day that doesn’t mean that the balance 20 days somebody should make up for his fast. Once he dies then he doesn’t have to offer Salaah, he doesn’t have to fast everything ceases to exist except the 3 things which I mentioned.

 

So the person whoever is involved in charge of his affairs, he need not worry at all, once he dies everything ceases to exist except for 3 things which I mentioned. 

 

Yusuf Chambers: That’s a very distinct answer. Dr. Zakir, suppose a person dies and that person who has died has made an obligatory vow to fast, can the same number of people as the number of days he has vowed to fast make up for those fast?

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as a person who has died and who had vowed that he will make ‘X’ numbers of fast he has vowed may be about say….that if he has said that he will fast for 30 days, he has made a vow and if he dies without fulfilling that vow then in this case can one person fast for 30 days or can 30 people make up for the fast in one day. 

 

The reply is given in a Hadith of 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 Book of Fasting ch. no. 42 where 

 

“Hassan (may Allah be pleased with him) said that “if 30 people gather together and they fast together on one day that could make up for the fast that the person who has died has vowed for 30 days.”

 

So either one person fasts for the number of days he has vowed or that number of people as many as the days vowed come together and fast, both are permissible.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay, that’s comforting to know, Alhumdulillah. Dr. Zakir in the case of a woman who is on her menses going through her period, menstrual cycle, can she fast these first 6 days of Shawwal, before she makes up the fast which she missed due to the period in Ramadhaan?

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as a lady who has undergone menstrual cycle and if she misses may be 6 fasts in the month of Ramadhaan, she has both the options, she can either make up the fasts of Ramadhaan first and then fast the fast of Shawwal or she can first do the 6 fast of Shawwal and then make up for the fast that she has missed but as far as permissibility is concerned, both are permissible but the better would be that first she makes up for the fast she has missed in the month of Ramadhaan because that’s an obligatory fast, the fast of Shawwal is a voluntary fast. First she should make up for the fast that’s better and then she should fast of Shawwal so that she would be able to fulfill the benefits as our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, its mentioned in 

 

Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 2614 that the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said that

 

“Anyone who fasts the month of Ramadhaan and then follows it up with 6 fasts in the month of Shawwal it’s as though he has fasted for the full year or he has fasted perpetually for the full life.”

 

So better of the 2 is that she first makes up the fast for Ramadhaan and then later on she fasts the 6 days of Shawwal so that she gets the full benefit, she gets the full Sawaab, she gets the full reward as though she has fasted for the full year or she has fasted the full life but if she wasn’t to first keep the fast of Shawwal and then make up the fast of Ramadhaan, may be after couple of months even that’s permissible. But the better is the first one. 

 

Or she has one more option that she can do the Niya of making up for the fast which she didn’t keep in Ramadhaan and even together with that do the Niya of Shawal so it’s 2 in 1 and InshaAllah, Allah will reward her for both together.

 

Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah khair for the answer Doctor. Dr. Zakir, does one who is making up Qadha fasts have to make them up consecutively or at random? 

 

Dr. Zakir: For a person who has missed his fast in Ramadhaan while he is making up the Qadha fasts, there are 2 rulings, there are 2 groups of scholars, one group of scholars say that it should be consecutively, it is based on a Hadith which is present in Al Baihaqi as well as Daar Al Katni which says that 

 

“If a person who has missed the fast in Ramadhaan, he has to make up the fast consecutively.”

 

But this Hadith is a Da’if Hadith, it’s a weak Hadith. 

 

There is another Hadith which is present in  

Daar Al Katni (Vol. no. 2 ch. no. 74) which says that 

 

“A person who is making up for the Qadha fasts, he can either make it consecutively or he can make it separately, the way he pleases.” 

 

So the right ruling is that both options are available, he can do it the way he wants because the Qur’anic verse says in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184 that 

 

“If a person is sick, if he is ill or if he is on a journey, he should make up the fast later from the other days.”

 

Once Ramadhaan is over he can fast any other day and the same message is repeated in the next verse in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch.2 verse no. 185 that, it says that 

 

“We have prescribed you to fast in the month of Ramadhaan but if anyone who is ill or on a journey, he has to make up the prescribed periods from the other days.” 

 

So based on this right ruling is that the Qadha fasts can be kept anyway whether consecutively or it can be kept separately, the choice is his. There is no one particular Hadith which is authentic in which the Prophet said how the Qadha fasts should be kept or it describes how the Prophet kept but there are other Hadith which speak about the call of the Sahabas. 

 

There is a call of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 in the Book of Fasting ch. no. 40, 

 

“Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said that “a person who has missed the fast in the month of Ramadhaan, he can fast separately if he pleases.”

 

There is another call in Daar Al Katni (Vol. no. 2 ch. no. 66) of Abu Hurraira (may Allah be pleased with him), he said that “if a person who wants to make up for the fast he has missed in the month of Ramadhaan he can fast consecutively if he pleases.” 

 

So the right ruling is that the Qadha fast can be made together if a person pleases, if he’s missed 15 fasts he can fast 15 fasts together or he can fast at random 1 fast a week, 1 fast a month or once a fortnight, the choice is his. 

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay thank you for the answer, JazakAllah Khair. Could you explain for the benefit of the viewers what is Fidia and on whom is it obligatory? 

 

Dr. Zakir: The word Fidia means the compensation for a fast which could not be kept due to some permanent disability or some disease as the Qur’an mentions in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184 that 

 

“If it’s difficult for a person to fast then he can feed one indigent person, one poor person.”

 

So if a person who has permanent disability, he is permanently sick or he is very old and can’t fast then he should feed one poor person for every fast he has missed and this is called as Fidia.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay Dr. Zakir is it permissible for one who is unable to fast to feed one person for 30 days or 30 people in one day? 

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as Fidia for a person who can’t fast or is unable to fast, the Qur’an says in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184 that 

 

“If a person finds it difficult to keep the fast or finds fasting with hardship then he can either fast or he can feed one indigent person for every fast that he has missed.”

 

So if a person who misses the full month or Ramadhaan for example and if he has to give Fidia, he has both the options open, he either calls 30 people and feeds them together so that compensates all or gives Fidia for all the 30 days that the person has missed or he can even give one person Fidia for 30 days and each person should be given one Saa of the staple food of that state of that country. 1 Saa in equal to 1½ Kilograms approximately. 

 

And both rulings are there as its mentioned in the ruling of Ibn Abbas in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 6 Hadith no. 4505, In commentary of this verse of the Qur’an of Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184, it says that those people who find it difficult to fulfill the fast, to complete their fast, they can either complete it or feed an indigent person and it says that these type of people described are very old men and women or those people who have permanent disability or they have a disease which makes them difficult to fast and both types of fast as is given in the Hadith of one of the Sahabas by the name of Anas Bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) when he was old the Hadith says that he cooked some food and he called 30 people and fed them together, the full… for the full month of Ramadhaan.

 

So here it shows that you can even give cooked food, cook food for them and feed them all whether it be breakfast, whether it be dinner whatever it is or the other option is as is also agreed upon by Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal, Imam Shafii as well as some of the Malikis that you can also give uncooked food to one person for 30 days, one person only, give him uncooked food for 30 days so that, that compensates the Fidia for the full month. The choice is yours either feed one person for 30 days or 30 people for one day.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay.

 

Dr. Zakir: Both is permissible 

 

Yusuf Chambers: Fine thank you. Dr. Zakir, could you explain the term Kaffara and furthermore could you also let our viewers know what is the expiation for a person who has sexual intercourse whilst fasting during the month of Ramadhaan?

 

Dr. Zakir: The word Kaffara is derived from the word Kufr which means to conceal, which mean to hide, which means to cover and in context of fasting Kaffara for fasting is done when a person willfully breaks the fast by having a sexual intercourse. When a man has sexual intercourse with his wife while fasting, while keeping a Fard fast, that’s fasting is the month of Ramadhaan then there should be a Kaffara. 

 

As far as what is a Kaffara, its mentioned clearly in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. No. 3 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 1936 where 

 

“A person comes to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) and he says that “O messenger of Allah, I am ruined, I am ruined” Prophet asked “what happened?” so he says that “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” He approached the Prophet and said “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” So the Prophet asked him that “can you manumit a slave?” Can you free a slave? So he said “no”. then the Prophet asked him that “can you fast for 2 consecutive months?, can you fast for 60 days together?” So he says “no”. then the Prophet asks him that can you feed 60 poor people, the man says “no”. So when a person comes and gives a basket of date to the Prophet so the Prophet hands this over to the man and says that “give this to the poor people and that will be your Kaffara.” So the man asks that “should I give to a person who is poorer than my family?” Prophet says “Yes”. So then the person says “I vow by Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) I don’t know of any family which is poorer than my family between the 2 hills and mountains of Madinah.” So the Prophet smiled until his molar is seen and he says “give it to your family.”

 

So from this Hadith we come to know that once a person breaks the fast purposely by having a sexual intercourse with his wife, the first thing he should do is that he should compensate the fast as early as possible but natural before the next Ramadhaan.

No. 2 he should give Kaffara.

 

From the Hadith we come to know that there are 3 options given

no. 1 is he should free a slave or 

no. 2 he can fast consecutively for 60 days, continuously he should fast for 60 days together without any break or 

He should feed 60 poor people and most of the scholars agree that it is not that he can choose any one of the 3; some scholars say yes he can choose any one of the 3 but the real ruling is he should try and do the first one, to free a slave. If he cannot free a slave then he should fast for 2 months consecutively, continuously. If he cannot do that then the option is that he can feed 60 people. So this is as far as Kaffara is concerned.

 

Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah Khair for that Hadith you cited that from Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) in order to answer that, very good. Does a person have to offer expiation for having sexual intercourse whilst he is doing a voluntary fast?

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as voluntary fasts are concerned there is no expiation if a person has sexual intercourse. The Kaffara that is there is only when a sexual intercourse is done during a Fard fast, during the fast of Ramadhaan, that is the time its Fard. There is a Hadith which is mentioned in 

 

Sunan Abu Dawud Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 2450 which is narrated by Umme Hani (may Allah be pleased with her) says that the 

 

“Prophet gave her water to drink during the conquest of Makkah, water was brought to the Prophet, the Prophet gives her water to drink. She drinks the water and she says that “I have broken my fast, I was fasting.” So the Prophet asks her that was the fast for some atonement, she says “no”. So the Prophet says then there is no problem. If it’s a voluntary fast then there is no problem.”

 

So here we come to know that the sin is only there if you break a Fard fast because for a Fard fast because of voluntary fast, it depends upon the person, he can break the fast, he can even eat whenever he wants and break the fast as we quoted several Hadith earlier that one of the persons calls a Sahaba to have food at his house and the Sahaba says that I am fasting, Prophet says that he has made food for you, he’s spent money so break your fast because it was a voluntary fast.

 

So voluntary fast can be broken, there is no sin at all. So in the same way if a person has sexual intercourse with his wife during a voluntary fast then its not a sin because it was a voluntary fast and he need not make up for the fast, he wants to make up, he can make up but neither is there any Kaffara.

 

Again there is a Hadith in Sunan Nasai Book of Fasting Hadith no. 2323

 

“Once the Prophet gets up in the morning and he asks for food from his wife Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) she says there is no food so the Prophet said that then I am fasting.”

 

Again for voluntary fast the Niya need not be made the night before, it can even be made afterwards as long as the person does not have any food after dawn. So based on this there is no Kaffara if a person has sexual intercourse during a fast which is voluntary.

 

Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah Khair. Last question for you today, Dr. Zakir, in this interview phase… of course we’ll be receiving answers of the questions from the viewers later on InshaAllah. In the case of a person who delays making up missed fasts, is there any expiation to be paid at all by that person?

 

Dr. Zakir: The right ruling is that if a person misses any fast in the month of Ramadhaan, he should make it up as soon as possible latest by next Ramadhaan. If he does not make up for the fast before the next Ramadhaan then it’s a sin. In this case you should ask for forgiveness and you should make it up as soon as possible. 

 

As far as an expiation is concerned there is difference of opinion. Some scholars say that because he delayed he should give some expiation and feed one poor person for every fast he has missed but there is no proof in the authentic Hadith that expiation should be given because the Qur’an is very clear in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 185 that 

 

“If a person is ill or on a journey he should make up the fast later on from the other days.”

 

There is no expiation mentioned here. So the right ruling is that if he has delayed too long, he should make it up as soon as possible, offer the Qadha fast but there is no expiation and this is the ruling of most of the scholars including Shaikh Salman Aodha, he says that you know, that he should make up the fast as soon as possible but there is no proof for expiation but he should ask for forgiveness for having delayed to make up the fast.

 

Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah Khair, Dr. Zair and now its time to move on to the questions from the viewers. The first question that I’d like to pose to you, Dr. Zakir here is from one of the viewers, of course, how does fasting act as an expiation for sins? 

 

Dr. Zakir: Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) has been very merciful and he has made fasting as expiations for various of our sins and there are various verses in the Qur’an which give us examples where it can be used and depending upon the sins the days you have to fast, it keeps on differing. For example Allah says in 

 

Surah Maidah ch. no. 5 verse no. 95 that

 

“Fasting can be used as expiation when you hunt a game during the sacred presence or in the state of Ihram”

 

When you are doing Umrah or Hajj and if you hunt a game then fasting can be one of the ways in expiation of your sins.

 

Further it’s mentioned in Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 196 that 

 

“If a person shaves his head when he is in Ihram either doing Umrah or Hajj because of certain diseases which he is not allowed to then he can fast as an expiation.”

 

Again it’s mentioned in Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 196 that 

 

“When a person performs Hajj, he has to sacrifice an animal but if he does not have the means to do it, instead of that as an expiation he can fast.”

 

Further it’s mentioned in Surah Maidah ch. no. 5 verse no. 89 that

 

“Fasting can be used as an expiation if you break a vow.”

 

If you have taken an oath and you have violated it then fasting can be used as expiation.

 

It’s also mentioned in Surah Mujadillah ch. no. 58 verse no. 3 & 4 that 

 

“If a person, if a man divorces his wife by Zihaar”, 

 

that was an old practice in the olden days by the Arabs that if a husband calls his wife that you are like the backside if my mother, its called as Zihaar, it’s a way of Divorce so as an expiation even that time fasting is an expiation of sin, fasting 2 consecutive months. It differs, different sins have different expiations and one more example I’d like to give you just for the benefit of the viewers, it’s mentioned in 

 

Surah Nisa ch. no. 4 verse no. 92 that 

 

“If a person accidentally kills a believer or if he kills a person with whom he has had a treaty then fasting can be used as an expiation for this also.”

 

Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah Khair for the answer. Next question from one of our viewers, if a person is unsure about how many fasts he has broken or missed how should he calculate the number of fasts that he has to make up?

 

Dr. Zakir: If a person doesn’t know how many fasts he has missed or can’t remember or can’t recollect then he should make a rough estimate but he should not underestimate it, he should make a rough calculation and fast, if he overestimates by little, it’s not a problem. Neither should he overestimate too much because he should not overburden himself so he should make a rough calculation to the best of his memory, to the best of his understanding little bit overestimate, no problem but not too much and neither should he underestimate it and he should complete that fast but there are 3 points to be noted 

No. 1 is that he should repent for it, what he missed or he could not fast he has to repent for it and Allah says in the Qur’an in 

 

Surah Noor ch. no. 24 verse no. 31, He says that

 

“O those who believe, they turn to their Lord in forgiveness so that they may attain bliss.”

 

So that they may go to Jannah. 

 

Again Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 286 that

 

“Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) does not lay a burden on a person greater than he can bear.”

 

So a person should repent and he should make up the fast as soon as possible with whatever understanding he has of the number of fasts he has missed. 

 

And Allah says in Surah Taghaabun ch. no. 64 verse no. 16 that 

 

“Fear Allah as much as you can. listen and obey.”

 

So a person should keep the fast, make up the fast as soon as possible. Preferably as soon as possible but naturally before the next Ramadhaan comes.

 

And the third point is that though its not a must, some scholars think that if he has missed it and too much delayed etc. he should  even give expiation i.e. feeding one poor person for every fast he has missed, though most of the scholars agree that it’s not a must but if a person can do, if he can give then its preferable but its not a must.

 

Yusuf Chambers: Next question, a sick sister could not fast in Ramadhaan and she could also not find a poor person to feed, should she give money in charity? If so how much does she have to give in its place? 

 

Dr. Zakir: As it’s clearly mentioned in the Qur’an in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184 that 

 

“If a person can fast with hardship, he can either fast or he has to feed a person indigent.”

 

Feed a poor person for every fast he has missed. So if the sister who was sick and she could not fast or she could not make up for the fast because she is sick and according to the commentary of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), it’s mentioned in 

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 (Book of Tafseer) Hadith no. 4505, commentary of this verse of the Qur’an, Surah Baqarah ch. no. 2 verse no. 184 he says that

 

“This verse is not abrogated but it refers to those people, old women and old men who cannot make up for the fast or a person who is continuously sick” like this sister.

 

As far as feeding indigent that’s what the Qur’an says but you cannot give charity to any poor person, you have to give food i.e. 1 Saa for one person is equal to 1½ Kilograms and as the sister said that she cannot find a poor person where she lives, I feel its difficult, fine some Muslim countries have got more poor people, some have got less but to say that she cannot find a single poor person to feed, that is difficult, I don’t know of any country where you can’t find a single poor person. Fine come countries have less poor person, some countries have more poor people but to say that she can’t find is difficult but surely she cannot give money in charity, how much money will she give. The Qur’an says that you have to feed one poor person for every fast missed. What she can do, she can appoint some person to find a poor person or appoint an organization to find but she should see to it that she will feed, give food i.e. one Saa for every fast she has missed.

 

Yusuf Chambers: There are many charities in every country representing the Muslims, I am sure she can find, I think you are absolutely right. JazakAllah Khair, Dr. Zakir. Next question for you Dr. Zakir, I read that it is permissible for pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers not to fast and that they could feed the poor and do not have to make up their missed days. How true is that? 

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as a lady who is pregnant or who is breastfeeding, how should she make up for her fast, the views are divided. There are 2 group of scholars, one group of scholars, they say that she need not make up for the fast the only thing that she has to give is the feeding of one poor person for every fast she has missed based on the verse of the Qur’an of 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 184 that

 

“If you find it difficult to fast then feed one indigent person.”

 

And according to the Hadith of Ibn Abbas, it’s mentioned in 

 

Sunan Abu Dawud Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 2311 

 

When Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) he gives commentary of this verse Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 184. he says “this is meant for people who are very old, old man or an old woman or people who are continuously sick and there is no chance of them to become healthy and he also adds that this refers to breastfeeding mothers and pregnant women.” 

 

But according to Shaikh Albani this Hadith is Dhaif, it’s a weak Hadith. But there is another Hadith which is there in Daar Al Qutni (Book of Fasting Hadith 11) where Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) he says to a concubine that “because you are pregnant, you need not keep the fast again, you only have to give Fidia i.e. feed one poor person for every fast you have missed.”

 

Talking to a concubine who had missed a fast. so based on this, this group of scholars say that you need not make up for the fast, you only give Fidia, feed one indigent poor person for every fast you have missed.

 

But the other group of scholars what they say that this verse of the Qur’an Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 184 does not fall under the category of breastfeeding women and pregnant women rather the next verse Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 185 which says that 

 

“Fast in the month of Ramadhaan but if any of you is sick or on a journey then he should make up the fast later on.”

So what this group of scholars say which is also the call of Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) that a breastfeeding woman and a pregnant woman fall under this category. They fall in the category of a person who is sick. You know it may be if she fasts it may be dangerous for her life or if she fasts it may be dangerous for the life of the baby so they say the breastfeeding woman and the pregnant woman are more closer to the people who are sick therefore that have to make up the fast because the verse of the Qur’an Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse no. 185 says that “fast in the month of Ramadhaan but if you are ill or if you are on a journey, you have to make up for the fast later on from the other days” so this is a more correct ruling.

 

However there is another third group of people what they say that if she has to fast because her life is in danger then she has to make up for the fast later on from the other days but if she has broken the fast because the life of the child is in danger then besides making up for the fast later on she also has to give Fidia, she has to feed 1 poor person.

 

But the more authentic ruling is the second ruling that if a breastfeeding woman or a pregnant woman if she misses any fast or she breaks any fast only thing she has to do is make up for the fast later on this is a more correct view as compared to all the views available which is also followed by Imam Ahmad, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal when Abu Dawud (may Allah have mercy on them) asked Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal that what should a breastfeeding woman do or what a pregnant woman do if she misses her fast? So he replied that she need not feed anyone but she has to make up for the fast later on from the other days.

Yusuf Chambers: Okay, thank you. Dr. Zakir, last question today is, is it permissible to give the Fidia to ones own children and grandchildren as an Iftaar meal?

 

Dr. Zakir: As far as Fidia is concerned, it’s mentioned in the Qur’an in 

 

Surah Baqarah ch. 2 verse 184 that 

 

“If a person can do with hardship, he should feed one indigent person, one poor person for every fast he has missed.”

 

But as far as giving to the grandchildren is concerned, its mentioned here in the Qur’an that Fidia should be given to a poor person so the grandchildren aren’t poor or if the children aren’t poor, you can’t give Fidia to them, they should be poor, if they are rich then he cannot give.

 

Point no. 2 Fidia is somewhat like Zakaat. Zakaat you can’t give to a person who is dependant. So the children are dependant to their father even the grandchildren are dependant so but natural in this context Fidia cannot be given to the children or the grand children. 

 

And the 3rd point to be noted is that if the person is very poor and the children are not dependant on the father or the grandfather because he is so poor he doesn’t have money to look after them only in that case as a last resort he can give Fidia to the grandchildren or children based on the Hadith of

 

Sahih Bukhari Vol. No. 3 in the Book of Fasting Hadith no. 1936 

 

“When a person comes to Prophet he gives the basket of date to him and says feed it to the poor people. So he says that should I give it to a person who is poorer than me and my family. Prophet says “Yes”. So he said “by Allah I do not know who is poorer than my family between the 2 mountains of Madinah”. So the Prophet smiles where his molar can be seen and he says okay feed your family.

 

So in this case that the family is very poor and they aren’t dependant on the father or the grandfather in this case as a last resort it can be given as Fidia to the children and grand children.

 

As far as saying it’s an Iftaar party it’s not a problem at all but the general ruling is it cannot be given to rich people. As a last resort, if they are really poor then can be given. 

 

Yusuf Chambers: Okay well Dr. Zakir thank you very much for your very nice answers today, Alhumdulillah, on the topic of the “Qadha Fasts, Fidia and Kaffara fasts” and there is a lot of information that you have given in this episode. Some of it was quite technical and I hope that the audience or the viewers followed it better than I did, Alhumdulillah, there was a lot of information and I am sure that great benefit in your answers. JazakAllah Khair Dr. Zakir Naik.

 

Brothers and sisters once again we’ve come to the end of today’s show and I trust that you have benefited enormously from the information that we’ve discussed on the topic. Tomorrow brothers and sisters, InshaAllah we’d be discussing the Sighting of the Moon do join us then at the same time.

 

Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh!