Ramadhaan – A Date with Dr. Zakir
Episode - 18
[Part – 2]
(Duration – 48 minutes)
Yusuf Chambers: Dear brothers and sisters in Islam and Humanity, Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh, may the peace, the mercy & the blessings of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) be upon all of you. Welcome to the show ‘Ramadhaan - A Date with Dr. Zakir’, I am your host, Yusuf Chambers, and today we will be discussing the topic ‘Zakaah - Part 2’. Dr. Zakir, Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh!
Dr. Zakir: Wa Alaikum Assalam Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh
Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir, following on from the first episode we had on Zakaah, I’d like to ask you, if I may, if a shopkeeper has a number of goods in the shop, is Zakaat applicable on all of the goods in the shop or just some of them?
Dr. Zakir: Alhumdulillah was salaatu was salaam ala rasoolillah wa ala aalihi wa ashaabihi wa ajma’een. Amma Ba’ad
A’uzu billahi minash shaytan nir-rajeem,
Bismillah hirrahman nirraheem,
Rabbish rahli Şadri Wa Yassir Li 'Amri Wa Ahlul `Uqdatan Min Lisani Yafqahu Qawli
As far as Zakaat on goods in the shop, all the merchandise and goods for trade and commerce which are brought and sold whether it be property, land, whether it be animals, foods, machinery whether stationary whether food stuff…anything, all of them are liable for Zakaat and whatever goods that are there in a grocery shop or whatever is there for trade there should be an inventory made and all should be noted down and once in a year take the stock of all the goods, available whatever is there for trade irrespective whatever it is cars, vehicles whatever it is, they should be noted down and Zakaat should be paid at 2½% whatever is there in the shop, the stock as well as the profit which is remaining at the end of the year that you are calculating on should be noted down and Zakaat should be paid at 2.5% except the land of the shop and the furniture and the vehicle used for transport these can be exempted from Zakaat otherwise all the trading stock, everything should be calculated for Zakaat.
Yusuf Chambers: Okay, thank you for the answer now in terms of paper currency, money how should Zakaat be calculated?
Dr. Zakir: As far as paper currency is concerned it is interchangeable with gold and silver we should try and find out the value of your paper currency and that keeps on changing, we can either evaluate what is the amount of currency that will reach the Nisaab level either with the Nisaab of the gold i.e. 85 grams of gold or the Nisaab of the silver i.e. 595 grams of silver so we should try and find out what would be the cost of 85 grams of gold in your country, in your currency or 595 grams of silver in your country, in your currency.
Now the difference of opinion that what should we take as Nisaab, should you take the Nisaab of the gold or the silver. Some of the Fuqahas say that take the lower limit so that a person gives Zakaat even though the Nisaab is low, some of the Fuqahas say that take the Nisaab which is higher so that, that gives an advantage to the poor person, he need not pay till it reaches the higher level of the Nisaab while other Fuqahas say that since silver was used as a way of trading in the olden days so you should take the Nisaab of the silver and try and find out what is your currency as far as 595 grams of silver is concerned.
But this option is left but if you really want to be more sure then you can take the lower level of Nisaab and normally silver, the rate of silver nowadays, 595 grams of silver is much less than 85 grams of gold. We should see what is the current value.
Suppose you are calculating the Zakaat to be paid at one particular date whether it be the 1st of Ramadhaan or whatever it is, you have to find out what is the value of 595 grams of silver or 85 grams of gold at that time. Now at present in India value of 1 gram of gold is approximately 900 rupees that would be approximately 22 or 23 dollars for 1 gram of gold. This rate of silver and gold will change in each country, what is the value in India will change what’s in Dubai may change, in America may change, in UK and the currency also keeps on fluctuating. In India today approximately for 1 gram of gold is approximately 900 rupees that comes to 22-23 dollars that means 85 grams of gold, the Nisaab level would be 76,500 rupees approximately. In dollars it would be somewhere close to 1900 dollars. If you want to take the Nisaab level of silver then 1 KG of silver approximately cost in India 18,000 rupees that’s equal to 450 dollars. So 595 grams of silver would cost approximately 10,710 rupees and in dollars it will be about 268 dollars, approximately. But the rate will change in Dubai, it will change in UK, it will change in USA, so wherever you are living you can take any financial magazine or any economic magazine and try and find out the rate and you can calculate yourself and if it reaches that level then you should give Zakaat if it’s above that also 2½% on whatever savings you have whatever surplus you have, you have to give that much Zakaat that year.
Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah khair, most of the…there are many Zakaat calculators available online free as well, aren’t they?
Dr. Zakir: That’s right.
Yusuf Chambers: Another thing which has worried me slightly is Ahm.. is Zakaat applicable on money that you have loaned out?
Dr. Zakir: As far as money that is lend, anything lend whether it is gold that is given on loan or silver or money or currency, the person who owns that he has to pay Zakaat on it though I know that the one you have lend to but natural without any Riba without interest that is Haraam in Islam, if you have lend to someone then the person who owns it has to pay, and the person who uses it doesn’t have to pay and you have to calculate it for example if you have given for a business deal saying that we share the Profit then it is your money, yet you have to pay the Zakaat.
There are 2 types of loan that are given one is secured loan and the other is unsecured loan if you give to one of your friends or your relatives a loan without any Riba, interest just for the sake of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), if it is a secured loan knowing the person is rich and will return it to you, you have to pay Zakaat every year so if you give it and about a couple of years pass may be a 2 or 3 years pass you have to pay every year the Zakaat on that amount.
If you have lend 100,000 rupees or 100,000 dollars then you have to pay 2½ thousand rupees or 2½ dollars every year on the money you have lent, every year.
If you do not have the money, the money you have lent is all that you had and you cannot pay Zakaat then when it comes back to you, if it comes back after 3 years then you have to pay for the 3 years i.e. 3 x 2.5, you have to pay 7.5% that’s 7½ thousand dollars or 7½ thousand rupees.
The other type of loan is unsecured loan where the person whom you have given to may be he is poor and you have doubts whether he will be able to repay the money or not. If it is unsecured loan and if you feel that you may not receive the loan you have given so if you don’t want to pay, you need not pay every year but if you don’t get the money then you will not pay the Zakaat but if you get the money may be after 5 years then you have to pay for all the years that you had lend. So if you have paid for 5 years, 5 into 2.5 that becomes 12½% so you pay 12½ thousand rupees or 12½ thousand dollars on that amount.
Yusuf Chambers: Okay. I think that’s very clear, thank you very much, Dr. Zakir for that answer. Are there things which a Muslim does not have to pay Zakaah on?
Dr. Zakir: Yes certain things are exempted from Zakaat.
No. 1 is your personal goods which are the basic necessities for example the food you eat, the clothes you wear, the furniture in your house, the fridge or microwave oven all these are exempted from Zakaat. The house which you live in is exempted from Zakaat, if you are carrying a weapon for your safety irrespective what’s the cost of the weapon is, it’s a personal belonging, it’s a requirement which is a necessity, that’s also free from Zakaat. If you have a vehicle for traveling, it be a car, it be a motorcycle, the animal or horse to ride on all these are exempted from Zakaat. All your personal belongings are exempted from Zakaat. All the vegetables are also exempted from Zakaat. If you have any animals that are used for agriculture or for your personal use that too is exempted from Zakaat.
And the Prophet said that vegetables are exempted from Zakaat, the Ariyat trees are exempted from Zakaat, grains if it is less than 5 Wasaq, it’s exempted from Zakaat or any of your animals the person is exempted from Zakaat. These are the things on which Zakaat is not counted. Anything above this which is surplus if it reaches the Nisaab level or above it then you have to pay Zakaat on it.
Yusuf Chambers: The next question really relates to, the general issue of calculation of Zakaat, could you explain to the viewers in a nutshell how that is done?
Dr. Zakir: There are 2 methods how Zakaat can be calculated because Zakaat is payable when you have it for one year. So you can keep a daily record of what is your wealth above the Nisab level, you can keep a weekly record or a monthly record so then whenever the Nisaab level is above, note down the date. On first of January what was the Nisaab you had, second of January, what you have.
So what you had in the first of January say first of January 2007 so first of January 2008 it will be liable for Zakaat then what you had on second of January calculate it then 3rd of January or on weekly basis or on monthly basis but to keep a record of all this is very difficult. Then you’d be spending half the day in keeping the record which will be difficult so it’s not practical at all.
The easier method and the safe method where mistake, InshaAllah, will be avoided, is picking one particular day in the full year and calculate it exactly one year after that. Most of the people before Ramadhaan because it is the month of charity, you will get more blessings and more rewards but Ramadhaan is not the only month that you have to pick up, you can pick up any day of the year but it should be calculated according to the Hijri calendar not according to the Solar calendar. So 1st of January 2007 to 1st of January 2008 the date is wrong. It should be first Shaabaan or first of Hajj but since Ramadhaan is the most pious month, 1st of Ramadhaan you can take or any day of Ramadhaan, if you take 1st of Ramadhaan calculate all the assets that you have and next year if its 1st of Ramadhaan 1420 Hijri, then 1st of Ramadhaan 1421st Hijri you should see what amount you have. Now if you calculate only on one day and see exactly 1 Hijri year later, on lunar year later, it is the safest method there can never be any possibility that you will give less Zakaat. There can be high chances you may give more Zakaat but never less, why? If you keep on calculating daily then the level keeps on going up and down but if you calculate one particular day of the year whichever day you pick up and if that happens to be the lowest collection, the lowest savings in the full year yet you are paying the minimum amount of Zakaat. Say on the 1st of Ramadhaan you have 100,000 rupees as saving or 100,000 dollars as saving ands that happens to be the lowest saving in your full year yet since it’s the lowest you have to pay Zakaat on what you possess one full year, you have to pay 2½ thousand rupees or 2½ thousand dollars on that amount, its safe but it may be that it is the highest saving of the full year. So here itself you may be paying more Zakaat but you wont be paying less but some people may think O it is the highest saving that means I am paying unnecessary more amount there are chances you may pay more but there are no chances you’ll pay less because even if it is the highest and if you think that you will try and catch the lowest point, the lowest point will keep on changing, it may be in the month of Shabaan, it may be in the month of Rajjab, may be in the month of Hajj and then if you try and catch that point, next rate will again change. So if you try and catch that point there are high chances you'll pay less Zakaat so best is to pick up one point, one day in the full Hijri calendar and keep on taking that every year and you will be rest assured that you will never pay less Zakaat, you may pay more. Because if the wealth keeps on fluctuating up and down you have to pay on what amount you posses for the full year.
Yusuf Chambers: Ya.
Dr. Zakir: … but the lowest point once may be Sha’baan, the other may be Ramadhaan, the third may be Hajj, may be any month the safest is to pick up any one keep on sticking to that year and InshaAllah, you will never pay less, you may pay more. Sometimes 10% more, 20% more, 30% more, it will never be less, InshaAllah. So this is the safest method, it is the best method.
And on this way whichever day you pick up, you have to calculate all the savings you have whether in cash, what is your bank balance, what is the gold you possess whether in the form of jewelry, whatever stock you possess whether in shares whatever investment, all this if you put together or your business, the stock trade of your business all put together, if you are due to receive some amount from someone even that has to be calculated because he has given a bit late but yet its your property or if you have given some loan to someone even that has to be calculated.
But if you have to give some money to someone that has to be deducted form your amount for example you have taken a loan of 100,000 dollars or 100,000 rupees the total amount is 500,000 rupees that you have in your home, cash in your hand, cash in bank, stock everything. So you have to minus from 500,000 100,000 so you have to pay Zakaat on 400,000.
But if you possess 500,000 and you have given loan of 200,000 dollars to somebody else and you have to receive 100,000 dollars because the goods you have sold. So 500 + 200,000 + 100,000, you have to pay Zakaat on 800,000 dollars.
So in all you have to calculate on one particular day of the year and then you have to pay Zakaat 2½% on that.
Yusuf Chambers: I’d like to ask you though, in the case of a person in the case of a person who unfortunately is little bit miserly, doesn’t really want to pay the Zakaat therefore, what advice would you like to give to that particular person that person is very well off but due to miserliness they decide to forgo the Zakaat. What is your advice to that person?
Dr. Zakir: There are various verses in the Qur’an and several Ahadith which you can narrate to these people who are miser and don’t want to give Zakaat in order to encourage them to give Zakaat. Allah says in the
Qur’an in Surah Fajr ch. no. 89 verse no. 20
“And those who love their wealth with excessive love”,
talking about these people who are miserly, further
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Aadiyaat ch. no. 100 verse no. 8 that
“And he is voluntary in love with his wealth”,
You know those people…. talking about, those people who live wealth so much and are dying for the wealth; So Allah is giving warning to these people
Allah says in Surah Taghaabun ch. no. 64 verse no. 15 that
“Your wealth and your children are a trial for you, are a test for you”
Allah is telling all these things that you love so much are a test, are a trial for you
And there is a Hadith of Tirmidhi (Book of Zuhd) Hadith no. 2336 where the beloved Prophet said that
“Every Ummah will be tested with something and my Ummah will be tested by wealth.”
Wealth is a test for my Ummah and Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) gives an example in the Qur’an in
Surah Qalam ch. no. 68 verse no. 17 to 33 and
“Allah narrates the story of a person who owns a beautiful big garden and this person was very charitable whatever earnings he got from the garden, he spent whatever was required for the family and in maintaining the garden and the rest everything he used to give in charity so this continues for a long time. After this person died his children, they said that “what a fool our father was! He gave everything in charity” so what they decided that when whatever harvest they get, whatever goods they get they will slowly at night take it away to their own homes, the children decided and no one will come to know. So when the fruits and everything came, they took it to their homes and next day when they came to the garden everything was ruined, the complete garden was absolutely ruined. And only their garden was affected and there the Qur’an says in
Surah Qalam ch. 68 verse no. 31
“And we have transgressed the limit”
And Allah says in the next verse in
Surah Qalam ch. 68 verse 33 that
“For these people there is a punishment in this world and more severe punishment in the hereafter.”
I mean those who love their wealth and are miserly people there is a punishment in this world, in the next world there is a bigger punishment. Those people who are miserly and don’t wasn’t to give Zakaat… actually Zakaat is for purification for whatever impurity you have, will be washed away and its to increase your wealth as our Prophet said, I said earlier that “charity does not decrease your wealth.”
And Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Layl ch.no. 92 verse no. 8 to 11 that
“Those people who are miser and those who think that they are self-sufficient, Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) makes their path of miserness smooth for them. But the wealth will not save them and they will fall headlong into the pit.”
The miser people think that wealth is sufficient for them, they themselves will actually perish.
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Ale Imran ch. no. 3 verse no. 180 that
“Those who covetously hold on to the wealth that Allah has given them thinking that it will be good to them actually it will be a loss for them and on the day of resurrection, on the day of judgment their wealth will be wounded around their neck and it will be a loss for them”
So a person should be reminded that Zakaat is to increase his wealth and Zakaat is given to decrease your love for wealth.
As Allah says in Surah Ale Imran ch. 3 verse no. 92 that
“You are not a believer until you give what you love”
So Zakaat is to decrease your love for wealth and increase the brotherhood amongst the Muslims and purify your wealth and increase your wealth.
Yusuf Chambers: Well Dr. Zakir I think now we have reached the stage where we’ve defined Zakaat and how it’s calculated but I’d like to move on now to the different categories of people who are eligible to take the Zakaat or to whom the Zakaat is paid. Could you first confirm the different categories of the people that can first receive the Zakaat?
Dr. Zakir: The categories of people who can receive Zakaat is mentioned in
Surah Tawbah ch. no. 9 verse no. 60
The first is the Fuqara i.e. the poor
Second is the Masaakeen i.e. the needy
Third is the Aamiloon, those who are involved in collection of the Zakaat
Fourth is Maulla Fatul Qulub those whose hearts are inclined towards Islam
Fifth are the Riqaab i.e. Zakaat can be given to free a captive or in bondage
Sixth are the Garemoon, those who are debtors
Seventh is Fee Sabilillah, Zakaat can be used in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) and
Eighth is the Ibn Sabeel i.e. the wayfarer.
So there are eight categories specified in the Glorious Qur’an to whom the Zakaat can be given.
Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir can you also…as a point of reference, what is the punishment for a person who forgoes the obligation of Zakaat?
Dr. Zakir: The punishment for those people who refuse to pay Zakaat or are neglectful in paying Zakaat and our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, its mentioned in the Hadith of Tabrani that that
“The person who does not pay Zakaat his wealth will be destroyed”
and the Prophet said further in a Sahih Hadith of
Sahih Al Targheeb Vol. no. 1 (Book of Charity) Hadith no. 758 that
“Those who are neglectful in paying of Zakaat there will be a calamity bought to them.”
May like famine etc. further our beloved Prophet said in
Ibn Majaah and Al Haakim that
“Those who are neglectful, those who refrain from paying Zakaat, Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) will not send rain on them. if it wouldn’t have been for the animals and cattles that they have, rain wouldn’t have been send on them.”
And Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah Taubah ch. no. 9 verse no. 34 and 35 that
“Those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) that means do not give Zakaat, announce to them a grievous penalty, the wealth which they hoarded will be put into the fire of hell and with it they’ll be branded on their forehead, on their flank and on their back. And it will be told to them taste the wealth which you hoarded.”
And our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said its mentioned in a Hadith
Sahih Bukhari Book of Zakaat Vol. no. 2 Hadith no. 1403 that
“Those people who do not pay Zakaat on the day of Judgment their wealth which they have hoarded on which they have not paid Zakaat would be made into a snake which is a baldheaded snake, baldheaded male poisonous snake which has marks above the 2 eyes and will be wound on their neck and it would sting at the cheeks and would say that I am your wealth, I am your wealth which you treasured”
And the Prophet says and repeats the verse of the Qur’an which Allah has reveled in
Surah Ale Imran ch 3 verse no. 108 that
“Those who covet the wealth which Allah has given and thinking that it would be good to them and not spend in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), the wealth will be wound around their neck and it will not benefit them.”
So this is the punishment for a person who does not give Zakaat. Further our beloved Prophet said, it’s mentioned in
Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 2161, the beloved Prophet said that
“Those people who do not give Zakaat on the cattle, these cattle their horns would be broken or would be twisted or will not be with thorns and with their horns they would to their master and some of the cattle would trample beneath the feet and this will continue happening till the full day and one day will be equal to 50,000 years i.e. the Day of Resurrection and then it will be decided whether these people will go hell or heaven.”
Further it’s mentioned in the Hadith of
Bukhari Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1399 & 1400
“There were some Arabs who revolted that they didn’t want to pay Zakaat, Hazrat Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), he said that these Arabs, Muslims who do not want to pay Zakaat, he will wage a war against them. So Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said that “how can you wage a war against them because the messenger Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said that “only wage a war against those who worship anyone besides Allah and no not say ‘la ila ha ill Allah Muhammadur Rasoolullah’” But then Hazrat Abu Bakr says that but these people are breaking the law anyone who differentiates between Zakaat and Salaah i.e. Fard and does not give Zakaat even if he does not give 1 sheep kid or 1 lamb, he used to give at the time of the Prophet, now if they abstain from giving Zakaat, he will wage a war against them and Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) says that Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) has opened the heart of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and whatever is his decision was right.
So there was a grievous penalty for those who do not pay Zakaat.
Yusuf Chambers: May Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) protect us from not paying the Zakaat and being amongst those who will be punished as a result if that, Dr. Zakir Naik,…
Dr. Zakir: Aameen.
Yusuf Chambers: …Could you just explain to me the… you used the term Fuqara and Masakeen could you explain those 2 terms?
Dr. Zakir: The meaning of the word Fuqara is a poor person, a person who may not have enough money or wealth for his basic necessities; he may not have money for his food, lodging, boarding, clothes, furniture etc.
As far as the Masaakeen is concerned it is a needy person, he may have some of his needs fulfilled, some may not be fulfilled, he may be very poor, he may be less poor. There are different categories of Masaakeens for example a person may be hand to mouth, he is leading a life has a basic necessities but suddenly he develops a heart attack, he may not have the money for his treatment so he becomes a Masaakeen, he becomes a needy.
So you can give your Zakaat money, to help him for his medical treatment, it’s a basic need and a s our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, its mentioned in
Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1395, where our Prophet said that
“Pay Zakaat on the wealth on your property”
But natural above the Nisaab level and take Zakaat from the rich and give it to the poor, give it to the Fuqara.
Fuqra are the poor people who may not have the basic necessities and requirements and Masaakeen is a person who is needy. And whatever is required for a need, if it’s fulfilled, it can be fulfilled by Zakaat money.
Yusuf Chambers: Okay. thank you very much for the explanation, next question Dr. Zakir is it permitted for people who are appointed to collect the Zakaat to take their salary from the Zakaat they are collecting even if that person or will the people appear to be wealthy?
Dr. Zakir: As I mentioned the 3rd category who can receive Zakaat are the Aamiloon, those who are involved in collecting of the Zakaat or they are administrating the Zakaat, how it is collected, how it is distributed so if a person spends his time in the collection of Zakaat from different Muslims and spends his time in seeing to it that it reaches the rightful person who falls in these categories even if he is wealthy you can pay from the Zakaat fund his salary because he is giving his time and he should be paid for the labor he is doing and there’s a Hadith in
Sunan Abu Dawud Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1643 that
“Ali ibn Sayedi (may Allah be pleased with him), he was appointed by Hazrat Umar Ibn Al Khataab (may Allah be pleased with him) to collect the Zakaat funds and after he collected and gave it to Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) he gave him some money so he said “I did it for Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), my reward will come from Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), I don’t require this money.” So he said take it and keep it because I was also appointed by the Messenger of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) and he gave me money and when he gave me money I said somewhat same thing what you had said but he told me that if you are given something for which you have not asked, don’t refuse it and use it for your personal thing and take it as Sadaqa.”
So even though you are rich if someone gives you so this proves that a person who is rich can be given for the service he has given for collecting, at the administration of the Zakaat funds.
Yusuf Chambers: JazakAllah Khair. Could you just explain the… when it comes to the term those people whose hearts are inclined towards Islam or the religion who does that include by category of people?
Dr. Zakir: This is the 4th category of Surah Tawbah ch. no. 9 verse no. 60
Those whose hearts are inclined towards Islam. There are various categories that can come in this for example can be used for propagation, those who are newly converted Muslims or rather the word revert, ‘revert’ is the right word, they have reverted to Islam and to strengthen their faith, the money can be used, it can be used for the propagation to see to it that non-Muslims are given knowledge of Islam so their hearts come closer towards Islam and there is a Hadith which is mentioned in
Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 2318 where
“Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) he sent some gold nuggets to the Prophet which along with some dust particles, so the Prophet gave it to 4 different people, of different tribes. But the people of tribe of Quarish, they felt a bit bad that the Prophet was a bit partial and didn’t give it to any of them but gave it to the Naj tribe so the Prophet said the reason I gave it is for reconciliation, I wanted their heart to be strengthened towards Islam.”
So Prophet used that to give it to particular group of people so that they come closer to Islam. So this is one of the ways that Zakaat can be used for getting people closer to Islam whether it be reverts, new converts or those also who may be going away from Islam, if you use that money so that their thing is strengthened for example there is a revert who is newly reverted to Islam, he may have social problems, he may have economic problems, you can give Zakaat money to settle him, to buy for him a house if he doesn’t have, if he doesn’t have a business, he can start a business with that money so he is secured and he feels happy coming in the new faith.
Yusuf Chambers: Thank you very much for the answer. Dr. Zakir, could you possibly explain the term to free the captives in terms of Zakaat?
Dr. Zakir: This is the 5th category mentioned in Surah Tawbah ch. 9 verse no. 60 which says ‘can be used for ‘riqab’ i.e. freeing the captives.
There is a Hadith which is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad Vol. no. 4 Hadith no. 18647 where
“Once a person comes to Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) and asks him that “What things should I do that will take me closer to Jannah i.e. paradise and take me away from hell?” So the Prophet tells him that “set free a life and liberate a slave.”
So the person was confused that what was the difference between the two and he was wondering what’s the difference between the two so he asked the Prophet that “is it one and the same?” So he said “No the first one to set free a life is done individually by you, you can set free a life but the second one that is liberating a slave is done in collaborating with the other people and you have to liberate a slave. So if you do these things, it will take you closer to Jannah.”
So the Zakaat money can be used to liberate a slave. For example a Muslim who is in bondage and if he can free him by paying the master, some money what is in debt so he can give this money to the slave and he can get his freedom or he can give the money directly to the master and free the slave.
In the context of today if there are some Muslim captives who are prisoners of war and if some money can be given to the people who are held them captive and if they free them then Zakaat money can be used to free the Muslims.
Thirdly it can also be used for example someone by mistake, accidentally, kills a person and if the relatives of the person who has been killed require Diya money, require blood money; Zakaat money can also be used for blood money in cases of accidents, when someone is killed and so that it can free the Muslims. So these are the various heads come under the category of Riqab, freeing of captives.
Yusuf Chambers: Thank you. In the terms of a person who has a debt and wants to pay the debt back, can they apply for Zakaat to pay their debt?
Dr. Zakir: As far as a person who is a debtor as mentioned in the Qur’an, the 6th category is GaareMoon, those who are in debt., so those who are in debt, they can surely ask for Zakaat money, they can apply…they can ask for Zakaat money because normally a person may not be aware that a person is in debt so he can ask, he can even beg and there is a Hadith in
Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 3 (Book of Buya) Hadith no. 3777 where
“A person comes and begs to the Prophet that a lot of loss that has taken place, by some fruits and there is a loss in his business, and he is in great debt. So he goes to the Prophet and he asks him to help him so the Prophet says that “give him out of charity”, give him out of Zakaat money. But even after money was gives it wasn’t given it wasn’t sufficient to pay his debt back so the person who he owed the debt to, the Prophet says “take what you get and write off the rest of the debt.”
And there is a Hadith which is mentioned in
Sahih Muslim Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 2271 where
“A person whose in debt, he comes to the Prophet and he begs the Prophet for help so the Prophet says “wait till we get the Sadaqa, and InshaAllah, we will give you the Sadaqa money.”
But the Prophet tells him that it’s not permitted for a person to beg unless he falls in 3 categories
No. 1 is unless he is in debt; he can keep on begging till he has given back his debt.
Category 2 is a person who has been struck by a calamity and doesn’t have the basic requirements of sustenance so he can beg till he gets his sustenance and
Third is a person who has been smitten by poverty and he is very poor and he comes in the Fuqara category then also he can beg till the time he gets his basic necessities.
So for a person who is in debt according to Islamic Shariah, he can apply, he can ask and he can receive the Zakaat money.
Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir, can Zakaat fund be used in order to propagate Islam and furthermore does this category fall under the title Jihad Fee Sabillah?
Dr. Zakir: The seventh category mentioned in the Qur’an in Surah Tawbah ch. 9 verse no. 60 it is ‘Fee Sabilillah’
Jihad Fee Sabiillah is one of the categories of Fee Sabiillah, Fee Sabilllah means in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), Jihad Fee Sabiillah means striving in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) and in context it means a person who is fighting for the cause of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) so surely Zakaat can be used for paying the salary of a person who is fighting in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), can be used for buying weapons if he is fighting to protect the Muslims.
In the broader sense Fee Sabilillah means striving in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) in any way but the category mentioned in the Qur’an is Fee Sabiillah, that’s in the way of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) and surely in this category it can be used for the propagation of Islam.
For example it can be used for distribution of Islamic literature, it can be used for holding Islamic conferences in which people will come closer to Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) and this category can also come in Mu-allafatul Quloob, those whose hearts are inclined towards Islam.
And furthermore Zakaat can be used for propagation like having Islamic programmes on satellite channel and there are Fatawas from different Fuqahas that Zakaat can also be used to fund the Islamic channel which is a non-profit channel and Islamic satellite channel so that the message of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), it reaches throughout the world. So one of the best way of propagation today is a satellite channel and you can use Zakaat funds even for supporting a satellite channel.
And our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, its mentioned in the Hadith of
Sunan Abu Dawud Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1631 that
A rich person can receive Zakaat under 5 categories
No. 1 is for Jihaad Fee Sabillah
No. 2 if he is administrating the funds of Zakaat
No. 3 if he gets into debt
No. 4 he can use Zakaat money to buy something from a poor person who has received as Zakaat and
No. 5 that if his neighbor who was poor, who receives Zakaat and he uses that fund to give a meal to the neighbor who is rich so even though it is Zakaat, he can accept it.
So these are the 5 categories which are mentioned but in general, Alhumdulillah, Zakaat can be used for the propagation of Islam, Alhumdulillah.
Yusuf Chambers: Okay Dr. Zakir, what about in a case of a rich person who happens to be traveling and he runs into problems as it does happens when you are traveling, is that person eligible to receive Zakaat?
Dr. Zakir: As far as the last category of Zakaat is concerned that’s Ibn Sabeel i.e. a wayfarer or a traveler, if a person who is traveling and if he gets stranded in a foreign land even though he is rich for example a rich American comes and someone robs his suitcase and all his money and he is stranded. So Zakaat money can be used for buying his ticket to go back home, he is a ibn Sabeel, he is a wayfarer, one option can be that he can take loan and return the money back but even he can take Zakaat money and this is a very good provision in Islam because for example a stranger in a strange land, who will know him? How can you trust him with loan? You know a new person is there, you may not trust him so if you can give Zakaat, it is an obligation, its obligatory to you, so you can give it to a rich person also and he can use but it should only be used for going back, you can’t use Zakaat fund so that he stays for long there and he uses the hotel and he has luxurious food etc, it should seen to it that he goes back to his place so that you help him out with the minimum requirement so that he reaches back safely home.
Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir, what about the different categories of people who are not eligible to receive the Zakaat, could you explain the viewers who they are?
Dr. Zakir: Amongst the categories who are not eligible, those who do not fall in the 8 categories mentioned in Surah Tawbah ch. no. 9 verse no. 60 but natural are not eligible to receive Zakaat as a general rule but there are some people who may fall in the 8 categories mentioned in Surah Tawbah ch. 9 verse 60 yet they may not be eligible.
First is the descendant of Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam). Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, its mentioned in
Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 3 (Book of Buya) Hadith no. 2055 that
“Once the Prophet sees a date fallen down and he said “I’d love to eat it but I am afraid that it may be of charity” because the thing of charity cannot be consumed by the Prophet and his family.”
There’s another Hadith of Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1491 where
“Hasan Ibn Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) once ate a date from what was part of the charity so the Prophet said that expel it from your mouth because the family of the Prophet, they cannot eat from what is given in charity.”
The reason is basically that people should not allege that the Prophet you know, is taking Zakaat, Zakaat is compulsory on the Muslims and Prophet is having from it so it is the Rahama of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), wisdom of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) that He has seen to it that the people should not lay an allegation. That’s what I feel is one of the reasons.
And the second category, those people who may fall in the 8 categories yet are not eligible is if he is a non-Muslim, if he is a non-believer as Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said, there’s a Hadith mentioned in
Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1395, the Prophet said that
“It’s compulsory to give Zakaat on your wealth, on your property and take wealth from the rich and give it to the poor.”
He told the Muslims so it means that the non-Muslims but natural, they are excluded, even the rich man is excluded. The rich man, he cannot fall in the category who cannot receive Zakaat and further more the Prophet said, it’s mentioned in the Hadith of
Tirmidhi (Book of Zakaat) Hadith no. 661, the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam) said that
“A person who is rich and able bodied, he should not be given Zakaat”
That means a rich person who can really do some work and do a job so but natural, he should not be given Zakaat unless he is doing your job and the salary he gets is not sufficient for his basic needs then but natural, he may be able bodied yet you can give but normal person who is able bodied who is not doing your job and begging and asking for Zakaat the Prophet never approved of it.
And the last category is you cannot give Zakaat to a person who is your dependant, he may fall in the 8 categories, he may be poor, he may be Masaakeen, he may be needy, he may be in debt but a person who is a dependant like for example a person cannot give Zakaat to his wife because wife is a dependant, a person cannot give Zakaat to his son or his daughter because the children are dependant on the father. Similarly a son cannot give Zakaat to his father or mother because they are the dependants so this is the 5th category who Zakaat cannot be given even though they may fall in the 8 categories of who have been permitted to accept Zakaat in Surah Tawbah ch. 9 verse 60.
Yusuf Chambers: Dr. Zakir in the case of person wishes to give Zakaat to a non-dependant family member what is the ruling on this?
Dr. Zakir: As far as giving Zakaat to a family member who is not dependant it’s permissible. There is a Hadith mentioned in
Sahih Bukhari Vol. no. 2 in the Book of Zakaat Hadith no. 1462
“Once the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wa sallam), he was giving Khutba after the Eid whether it was Eid-ul-Fitr or Eid-ul-Ada, he was giving a Khutba and he told to the people “give Alms, give charity, give zakaat”. Then he went to the women and told them “give Alms, give charity” and then he comes back home and then a lady by the name of Zainab (may Allah be pleased with her) she comes to the house of the Prophet and says that “may I come in?” he said “who are you?” So she says “I am Zainab.” “Who Zainab?” Then “Zainab, the wife of Ibn Masood” (may Allah be pleased with him) Prophet said “yes, you can come in” so she says “because you told me to Zakaat I want to give my Zakaat and give the gold jewelry but my husband Ibn Masood (may Allah be pleased with him), he says that no one is more deserving than your husband and your son. So the Prophet replies he is right. The most deserving of your Zakaat is your husband and your son. And giving to them will be the best people.”
So this proves that you can give Zakaat to your family member who is not a dependant.
And furthermore it’s mentioned in the Hadith of Sunan Nasai, hadith no. 2583 that
“Giving charity to the poor is only charity but giving charity to your near ones, it is also building relationships.”
So a man cannot give Zakaat to his wife because she is a dependant but a wife can give Zakaat to the husband. Similarly a son cannot give Zakaat to the mother but another can give Zakaat to a son because the son is not dependant on the mother. It is the father who is responsible for taking care of the family. Similarly a sister can give Zakaat to the brother but natural all of these relatives who are non-dependant should fall in one of the 8 categories then they can give Zakaat to the relatives who are non-dependant.
Yusuf Chambers: Well JazakAllah khair for the answer Dr. Zakir Naik. Indeed all of the answers you have given, all the questions, the numerous questions we had on Zakaat tonight in our interview. So brothers and sisters join us tomorrow at the same time when we will be answering your questions on Zakaat, ‘Zakaah - Part 3’ tomorrow at the same time.
Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh!